Enhancing cultural tourism through the development of memorable experiences: the “Food Democracy Museum” as a phygital project
Frame of the research: Because of increasing global competition and the devastating impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, tourism service providers need to understand how cultural tourism can be enhanced locally through the development of memorable cultural tourism experiences.
Purpose of the paper: The study aims to examine how to enhance local cultural tourism through the development of memorable experiences. More specifically, it identifies dimensions and triggers of memorable experiences in cultural tourism from the experience provider’s perspective.
Methodology: The study follows a qualitative approach by means of an in-depth case-study analysis. The Food Democracy Museum (FDM) - a diffused and digital museum aimed at enhancing the cultural heritage of the historical city center of Verona - was examined as a single case study. Interviews with various stakeholders were carried out and analyzed via content analysis by means of the NVivo software.
Findings: The FDM project contributes to developing memorable experiences in cultural tourism through the following dimensions: significance of the experience, authenticity, engagement, cultural exchange, culinary attraction, quality of service, and experience sharing. Social entrepreneurship supports digitalization, value co-creation, and the multi-stakeholder approach as triggers of such experiences.
Research limitations: Limitations include the use of a qualitative research method (single case study) and the sole consideration of the experience provider’s perspective. Thus, any resulting generalizations need to be treated with caution.
Practical implications: Experience has to be enriched with significance, authenticity, engagement, cultural exchange, culinary attraction, quality of service, and sharing both offline and online. SMEs can invest both in staff training to educate employees about aspects of service quality and local cultural tourism, and in technology-which does not need to be expensive.
Originality of the study: The proposed model can be used as a point of reference to improve
ACS Z.J., BOARDMAN M.C., MCNEELY C.L. (2013), “The social value of productive entrepreneurship”, Small Business Economics, vol. 40, n. 3, pp. 785-796.
AKAKA M.A., VARGO S.L. (2014), “Technology as an operant resource in service (eco) systems”, Information Systems and e-Business Management, vol. 12, n. 3, pp. 367-384.
ALTINAY L., SIGALA M., WALIGO V. (2016), “Social value creation through tourism enterprise”, Tourism Management, vol. 54, n. June, pp. 404-417.
AQUINO R., LÜCK M., SCHÄNZEL H.A. (2018), “A conceptual framework of tourism social entrepreneurship for sustainable community development”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 37, n. December, pp. 23-32.
AUSTIN J., STEVENSON H., WEI-SKILLERN J. (2006), “Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different or both?”, Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, vol. 30, n. 1, pp. 1-22.
AZIS N., AMIN M., CHAN S., APRILIA C. (2020), “How smart tourism technologies affect tourist destination loyalty”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 11, n. 4, pp. 603-625.
BACCARANI C., BONFANTI A. (2016), “Business theatre in management studies: A structured literature review and future research directions”, International Journal of Managerial and Financial Accounting, vol. 8, n. 3/4, pp. 334-360.
BACCARANI C., CASSIA F., ROSSATO C., CAVALLO D. (2019), “Territory, firms and value co-creation synergies”, Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 12, n. 2, pp. 197-208.
BACQ S., JANSSEN F. (2011), “The multiple faces of social entrepreneurship: A review of definitional issues based on geographical and thematic criteria”, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, vol. 23, n. 5/6, pp. 373-403.
BALLINA F.J., VALDES L., DEL VALLE E. (2019), “The phygital experience in smart tourism destination”, International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 5, n. 4, pp. 656-671.
BARATTA R., SIMEONI F. (2021), “Food is good for you (and the planet): balancing service quality and sustainability in hospitality”, Sinergie Italian Journal of Management, vol. 39, n. 1, pp. 193-213.
BARNEY J. (1991), “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage”, Journal of Management, vol. 17, n. 1, pp. 99-120.
BEC A., MOYLE B., TIMMS K., SCHAFFER V., SKAVRONSKAYA L., LITTLE C. (2019), “Management of immersive heritage tourism experiences: A conceptual model”, Tourism Management, vol. 72, n. June, pp. 117-120.
BESSIÈRE J. (2013), “«Heritagisation», a challenge for tourism promotion and regional development: An example of food heritage”, Journal of Heritage Tourism, vol. 8, n. 4, pp. 275-291.
BRODIE R.J., HOLLEBEEK L.D., JURIĆ B., ILIĆ A. (2011), “Customer engagement: Conceptual domain, fundamental propositions, and implications for research”, Journal of Service Research, vol. 14, n. 3, pp. 252-271.
BURGESS N., SHAPIRO J.L., MOORE M.A. (1991), “Neural network models of list learning”, Network: Computation in Neural Systems, vol. 2, n. 4, pp. 399-422.
CAO Y., LI X.R., DIPIETRO R., SO K.K.F. (2019), “The creation of memorable dining experiences: Formative index construction”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 82, n. September, pp. 308-317.
CAPUANO N., GAETA A., GUARINO G., MIRANDA S., TOMASIELLO S. (2016), “Enhancing augmented reality with cognitive and knowledge perspectives: A case study in museum exhibitions”, Behaviour and Information Technology, vol. 35, n. 11, pp. 968-979.
CARAYANNIS E.G., CAMPBELL D.F.J. (2009), “«Mode 3» and «Quadruple Helix»: Toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem”, International Journal of Technology Management, vol. 46, n. 3/4, pp. 201-234.
CASTELLANI P., BONFANTI A., CANESTRINO R., MAGLIOCCA P. (2020), “Dimensions and triggers of memorable tourism experiences: Evidence from Italian social enterprises”, The TQM Journal, vol. 32, n. 6, pp. 1115-1138.
CHANDRALAL L., RINDFLEISH J., VALENZUELA F. (2014), “An application of travel blog narratives to explore memorable tourism experiences”, Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 20, n. 6, pp. 680-693.
CHANDRALAL L., VALENZUELA F. (2013), “Exploring memorable tourism experiences: Antecedents and behavioural outcomes”, Journal of Economics, Business and Management, vol. 1, n. 2, pp. 177-181.
CHELL E. (2007), “Social enterprise and entrepreneurship. Towards a convergent theory of the entrepreneurial process”, International Small Business Journal, vol. 25, n. 1, pp. 5-26.
CHEN H., RAHMAN I. (2018), “Cultural tourism: An analysis of engagement, cultural contact, memorable tourism experience and destination loyalty”, Tourism Management Perspectives, vol. 26, n. April, pp. 153-163.
CHUNG N., HAN H., JOUN Y. (2015), “Tourists’ intention to visit a destination: The role of augmented reality (AR) application for a heritage site”, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 50, n. September, pp. 588-599.
COGHLAN A., NOAKES S. (2012), “Towards an understanding of the drivers of commercialization in the volunteer tourism sector”, Tourism Recreation Research, vol. 37, n. 2, pp. 123-131.
CRNOGAJ K., REBERNIK M., HOJNIK B., GOMEZELJ D.O. (2014), “Building a model of researching the sustainable entrepreneurship in the tourism sector”, Kybernetes, vol. 43, n. 3/4, pp. 377-393.
CUCCULELLI M., GOFFI G. (2016), “Does sustainability enhance tourism destination competitiveness? Evidence from Italian Destinations of Excellence”, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 111, n. January, pp. 370-382.
FRAENKEL J.R., WALLEN E.N. (2005), How to design and evaluate research in education with PowerWeb, McGraw Hill Publishing Co., Hightstown, NJ.
GIBB S. (2004), “Arts-based training in management development: The use of improvisational theatre”, Journal of Management Development, vol. 23, n. 8, pp. 741-750.
GNOTH J., ZINS A.H. (2013), “Developing a tourism cultural contact scale”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 66, n. 6, pp. 738-744.
GOLINELLI C.M. (2008), La valorizzazione del patrimonio culturale: Verso la definizione di un modello di governance, Giuffrè, Milano.
GOMES E., BUSTINZA O.F., TARBA S., KHAN Z., AHAMMAD M. (2018), “Antecedents and implications of territorial servitization”, Regional Studies, vol. 53, n. 3, pp. 1-14.
HAN H.L., (2012), “Culture, industry, and tourism: A study on the dietary and tourism environment of Jiufen”, Journal of Island Tourism Research, vol. 5, n. 4, pp. 24-44.
HEINONEN K., STRANDVIK T., VOIMA P. (2013), “Customer dominant value formation in service”, European Business Review, vol. 25, n. 2, pp. 104-123.
HUNTER-JONES P. (2011), “The role of charities in social tourism”, Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 14, n. 5, pp. 445-458.
JACK E.P., RATURI A.M. (2006), “Lessons learned from methodological triangulation in management research”, Management Research News, vol. 29, n. 6, pp. 345-357.
KARIM S., CHI C. (2010), “Culinary tourism as a destination attraction: An empirical examination of destinations’ food image”, Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, vol. 19, n. 6, pp. 531-555.
KELLY P., LAWLOR J., MULVEY M. (2017), “Customer roles in self-service technology encounters in a tourism context”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, vol. 34, n. 22, pp. 222-238.
KIM J.H. (2014), “The antecedents of memorable tourism experiences: The development of a scale to measure the destination attributes associated with memorable experiences”, Tourism Management, vol. 44, n. October, pp. 34-45.
KIM J.H. (2018), “The impact of memorable tourism experiences on loyalty behaviors: The mediating effects of destination image and satisfaction”, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 57, n. 7, pp. 856-870.
KIM J.H., CHEN J.S. (2019), “The memorable travel experience and its reminiscence functions”, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 58, n. 4, pp. 637-649.
KIM J.H., RITCHIE J.B., MCCORMICK B. (2012), “Development of a scale to measure memorable tourism experiences”, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 51, n. 1, pp. 12-25.
KIM J.H. (2010), “Determining the factors affecting the memorable nature of travel experiences”, Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, vol. 27, n. 8, pp. 780-796.
LAMNEK S. (2010), Qualitative social research, 5th ed., Beltz, Weinheim.
LEE Y.J. (2015), “Creating memorable experiences in a reuse heritage site”, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 55, n. November, pp. 155-170.
LEONIDOU E., CHRISTOFI M., VRONTIS D., THRASSOU A. (2018), “An integrative framework of stakeholder engagement for innovation management and entrepreneurship development”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 119, n. October, pp. 245-258.
LITTLE C., BEC A., MOYLE B., PATTERSON D. (2019), “Innovative methods for heritage tourism experiences: Creating windows into the past”, Journal of Heritage Tourism, vol. 15, n. 1, pp. 1-13.
MEYER D. (2010), “Pro-poor tourism: Can tourism contribute to poverty reduction in less economically developed countries?”, in Cole S., Morgan N. (Eds), Tourism and inequality: Problems and prospects, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp. 164-182.
MILES M.B., HUBERMAN A.M., SALDAÑA J. (2014), Qualitative data analysis: A methods sourcebook, Sage, AZ.
OSSERVATORIO DEL TURISMO REGIONALE FEDERATO (2021), Indicatori arrivi e presenze, https://osservatorioturismoveneto.it/
PENCARELLI T., CERQUETTI M., SPLENDIANI S. (2016), “The sustainable management of museums: An Italian perspective”, Tourism and Hospitality Management, vol. 22, n. 1, pp. 29-46.
PERA R., OCCHIOCUPO N., CLARKE J. (2016), “Motives and resources for value co-creation in a multi-stakeholder ecosystem: A managerial perspective”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 69, n. 10, pp. 4033-4041.
QIU R., PARK J., LI S., SONG H. (2020), “Social costs of tourism during the COVID-19 pandemic”, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 84, n. September, pp. 102944.
RBS (Rome Business School) (2021), Il turismo in Italia nell’era post-Covid, https://docplayer.it/214594408-Il-turismo-in-italia-nell-era-post-covid.html
RICHARDS G. (1996), Cultural tourism in Europe, ATLAS, CAB International, Wallingford, UKGreg Richards.
RICHARDS G. (2018), “Cultural tourism: A review of recent research and trends”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 36, n. September, pp. 12-21.
RITCHIE J.R.B., CROUCH G.I. (2003), The competitive destination, a sustainable tourism perspective, CABI Publishing, Cambridge.
RIVERA J., PASTOR R., GOMEZ PUNZON J. (2021), “The impact of the Covid-19 on the perception of DMOs about the sustainability within destinations: A European empirical approach”, Tourism Planning and Development, pp. 1-29.
ROBSON C. (2002), Real World Research, 2nd ed., Blackwell, Oxford.
SAKATA H., PRIDEAUX B. (2013), “An alternative approach to community-based ecotourism: A bottom-up locally initiated non-monetised project in Papua New Guinea”, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 21, n. 6, pp. 880-899.
SALDAÑA J. (2009), The coding manual for qualitative research, 2nd ed., Sage Publications, London.
SCHALTEGGER S., WAGNER M. (2011), “Sustainable entrepreneurship and sustainable innovation: Categories and interactions”, Business Strategy and The Environment, vol. 20, n. 4, pp. 222-237.
SERRAVALLE F., FERRARIS A., VRONTIS D., THRASSOU A., CHRISTOFI M. (2019), “Augmented reality in the tourism industry: A multi-stakeholder analysis of museums”, Tourism Management Perspectives, vol. 32, n. October, pp. 100549.
SEYFI S.C., HALL M., RASOOLIMANESH M. (2019), “Exploring memorable cultural tourism experiences”, Journal of Heritage Tourism, vol. 15, n. 3, pp. 341-357.
SIGGELKOW N. (2007), “Persuasion with case studies”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 50, n. 1, pp. 20-24.
SINTHUPUNDAJA J., KOHDA Y., CHIADAMRONG N. (2019), “Examining capabilities of social entrepreneurship for shared value creation”, Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, vol. 11, n. 1, pp. 1-22.
SUGATHAN P., RANJAN K.M. (2019), “Co-creating the tourism experience”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 100, n. July, pp. 2017-217.
SWANSON K., DEVEREAUX C. (2017), “A theoretical framework for sustaining culture: Culturally sustainable entrepreneurship”, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 62, n. January, pp. 78-88.
TAHERI B., JAFARI A., O’GORMAN K. (2014), “Keeping your audience: Presenting a visitor engagement scale”, Tourism Management, vol. 42, n. June, pp. 321-329.
TERÁN-YÉPEZ E., MARÍN-CARRILLO G.M., CASADO-BELMONTE M., CAPOBIANCO-URIARTE M. (2020), “Sustainable entrepreneurship: Review of its evolution and new trends”, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 252, n. April, pp. 119742.
THRASSOU A., VRONTIS D., BRESCIANI S. (2014), “Strategic reflexivity in the hotel industry - A value based analysis”, World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 10, n. 2/3, pp. 352-371.
TOM DIECK M.C., JUNG T. (2017), “Value of augmented reality at cultural heritage sites: A stakeholder approach”, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, vol. 6, n. 2, pp. 110-117.
TSAI C.T. (2016), “Memorable tourist experiences and place attachment when consuming local food”, International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 18, n. 6, pp. 536-548.
TSCHEU F., BUHALIS D. (2016), “Augmented reality at cultural heritage sites”, in Inversini A., Schegg R. (Eds.), Information and communication technologies in tourism, Springer, Cham, pp. 607-619.
TUNG V.W.S., RITCHIE J.B. (2011), “Exploring the essence of memorable tourism experiences”, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 38, n. 4, pp. 1367-1386.
UNWTO (2018), Report on tourism and culture synergies, UNWTO, Madrid.
VOLO S. (2010), “Bloggers’ reported tourist experiences: Their utility as tourism data source and their effect on prospective tourists”, Journal of Vacation Marketing, vol. 16, n. 4, pp. 297-311.
WALIGO V., CLARKE J., HAWKINS R. (2013), “Implementing sustainable tourism: A multi-stakeholder involvement management framework”, Tourism Management, vol. 36, n. June, pp. 342-353.
WILLIAMS H., YUAN J., WILLIAMS R. (2019), “Attributes of memorable gastro-tourists’ experiences”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, vol. 43, n. 3, pp. 327-348.
XU F., BUHALIS D., WEBER J. (2017), “Serious games and the gamification of tourism”, Tourism Management, vol. 60, n. June, pp. 244-256.
YIN R.K. (2003), Case study research: Design and methods, 3rd ed., Sage Publications, London.
YUNG R., KHOO-LATTIMORE C. (2017), “New realities: A systematic literature review on virtual reality and augmented reality in tourism research”, Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 22, n. 17, pp. 2056-2081.
ZAHRA S.A., GEDAJLOVIC E., NEUBAUM D.O., SHULMAN J.M. (2009), “A typology of social entrepreneurs: motives, search processes and ethical challenges”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 24, n. 5, pp. 519-532.