Nutritional claims and framing effect: how does the way of communication impact on the product perception?
Keywords:nutritional claim, sugar claim, framing effect theory, packaging, product perception, consumer behaviour
Framing of the research. The paper falls within the literature concerning food claims and the framing effect theory, expanding knowledge on the topic.
Purpose of the paper. The research tested the effectiveness of alternative ways of communicating the same information (the absence of added sugars in the product) through nutritional claims. Their impact on consumer perceptions was explored in terms of perceived healthiness, perceived quality, attitude toward the product, purchase intention, and willingness to pay.
Methodology. Images of fruit juice bottle were used as a stimulus and two versions of the pack were created: one with negative claim “no added sugar” and one with positive claim “only fruit sugars”. Data were collected by means of a web survey for a total of 122 completed questionnaires.
Results. Results demonstrated the greatest effectiveness on consumer perception of the claim with positive frame compared to the claim with negative frame.
Research limitations. The research investigated a single product category (fruit juices) and a single ingredient (sugar). More stimuli should be considered.
Managerial implications. The results offer useful information to food companies about the way of communication through product packaging and, in particular, through nutritional claims.
Originality of the paper. The paper analyzes two types of labels that have never been studied in the literature, extending the knowledge in the context of the framing effect theory with reference to nutritional claims.
COWBURN G., STOCKLEY L. (2005), “Consumer understanding and use of nutrition labelling: A systematic review”, Public Health Nutrition, vol. 8, n. 1, pp. 21-28.
ROININEN K., LÄHTEENMÄKI L., TUORILA H. (1999), “Quantification of consumer attitudes to health and hedonic characteristics of foods”, Appetite, vol. 33, n. 1, pp 71-88.
BUI M., KALTCHEVA V., PATINO A., LEVENTHAL C. (2013), “Front-of-package product labels: influences of varying nutritional food labels on parental decisions”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 22, n. 5/6, pp. 352-361.
DODDS W. (1991), “In search of value: how price and store name information influence buyers′ product perceptions”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 8, n. 2, pp. 15-24.
LEVY A.S., FEIN S.B. (1998), “Consumers’ ability to perform tasks using nutrition labels”, Journal of Nutrition Education, vol. 30 n. 4, pp. 210-217.
MUEHLING D., LACZNIAK N., STOLTMAN J. (1991), “The moderating effects of ad message involvement: a reassessment”, Journal of Advertising, vol. 20, n. 2, pp. 29-38.
KAUSHAL K., KUMAR R. (2016), “Influence of Attitude Towards Advertisement on Purchase Intention: Exploring the Mediating Role of Attitude Towards Brand Using SEM Approach”, Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 15, n. 4.
KONUK F. (2019), “Consumers’ willingness to buy and willingness to pay for fair trade food: The influence of consciousness for fair consumption, environmental concern, trust and innovativeness”, Food Research International, vol. 120, pp. 141-147.
KALISH S., NELSON P. (1991), “A comparison of ranking, rating and reservation price measurement in conjoint analysis”, Marketing Letters, vol. 2, n. 4, pp. 327-335.
KOHLI R., MAHAJAN V. (1991), “A reservation-price model for optimal pricing of multiattribute products in conjoint analysis”, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 28, n. 3, pp. 347-354.
WERTENBROCH K., SKIERA B. (2002), “Measuring consumers’ willingness to pay at the point of purchase”, Journal of marketing research, vol. 39, n. 2, pp. 228-241.
PRAKASH G., PATHAK P. (2017), “Intention to buy eco-friendly packaged products among young consumers of India: A study on developing nation”, Journal of cleaner production, vol. 141, pp. 385-393.
HAO Y., LIU H., CHEN H., SHA Y., JI H., FAN J. (2019), “What affect consumers’ willingness to pay for green packaging? Evidence from China”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, vol. 141, pp. 21-29.
TSIOTSOU R. (2006), “The role of perceived product quality and overall satisfaction on purchase intentions”, International journal of Consumer Studies, vol. 30, n. 2, pp. 207-217.
WANG Y., HEITMEYER J. (2006), “Consumer attitude toward US versus domestic apparel in Taiwan”, International Journal of Consumer Studies, vol. 30, n. 1, pp. 64-74.
BAGOZZI R.P. (1986), Principles of marketing management, Science Research Associates, Chicago.
DABHOLKAR P. (1994), “Incorporating choice into an attitudinal framework: analyzing models of mental comparison processes”, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 21, n. 1, pp. 100-118.
AJZEN I., FISHBEIN M. (1977), “Attitude-behavior relations: a theoretical analysis and review of empirical research”, Psychological Bulletin, vol. 84, n. 5, pp. 888-918.
AJZEN I., FISHBEIN M. (2005), “The influence of attitudes on behavior” In Albarracín D., Johnson B.T., Zanna M.P. (Eds.), The handbook of attitudes (pp. 173-221). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
DODDS W.B., MONROE K.B., GREWAL D. (1991), “Effects of price, brand and store information on buyers’ product evaluations”, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 28, pp. 307-319.
ZEITHAML V.A. (1988), “Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 52, pp. 2-22.
ANSELMSSON J., JOHANSSON U., PERSSON N. (2007), “Understanding price premium for grocery products: a conceptual model of customer-based brand equity”, The Journal of Product and Brand Management, vol. 16, n. 6, pp. 401-414.
ANASTASIOU K., MILLER M., DICKINSON K. (2019), “The relationship between food label use and dietary intake in adults: A systematic review”, Appetite, vol. 138, pp. 280-291.
PAQUETTE M.C. (2005), “Perceptions of healthy eating: state of knowledge and research gaps”, Canadian Journal of Public Health, vol. 96, n. 3, pp. S16-S21.
CARELS R.A., HARPER J., KONRAD K. (2006), “Qualitative perceptions and caloric estimations of healthy and unhealthy foods by behavioral weight loss participants”, Appetite, vol. 46, n. 2, pp. 199-206.
CARELS R.A., KONRAD K., HARPER J. (2007), “Individual differences in food perceptions and calorie estimation: an examination of dieting status, weight, and gender”, Appetite, vol. 49, n. 2, pp. 450-458.
OAKES M.E. (2006), “Filling yet fattening: stereotypical beliefs about the weight gain potential and satiation of foods”, Appetite, vol. 46, n. 2, pp. 224-233.
ARES G., DE SALDAMANDO L., GIMÉNEZ A., DELIZA R. (2014), “Food and wellbeing. Towards a consumer-based approach”, Appetite, vol. 74, pp. 61-69.
BAGLIONE S.L., TUCCI L.A., STANTON J.L. (2012), “Self‐reported nutritional knowledge and the acceptance of health‐related food benefit claims”, British Food Journal, vol. 114. n. 4, pp. 453-468.
BECH-LARSEN T., SCHOLDERER J. (2007), “Functional foods in Europe: consumer research, market experiences and regulatory aspects”, Trends in Food Science & Technology, vol. 18, n. 4, pp. 231-234.
BIALKOVA S., SASSE L., FENKO A. (2016), “The role of nutrition labels and advertising claims in altering consumers’ evaluation and choice”, Appetite, vol. 96, pp. 38-46.
BONNER P. G., NELSON R. (1985), “Product attributes and perceived quality: Foods”, in J. Jacoby, J.C. Olson (Eds.), Perceived Quality-How Consumers View Stores and Merchandise, Lexington, Toronto, pp. 65-79.
BROEMER P. (2004), “Ease of imagination moderates reactions to differently framed health messages”, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 34, n. 2, pp. 103-119.
BUUL V.J., BROUNS F.J.P.H. (2015), “Nutrition and health claims as marketing tools”, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 55, n. 11, pp. 1552-1560.
CAMPOS S., DOXEY J., HAMMOND D. (2011), “Nutrition labels on pre-packaged foods: a systematic review”, Public Health Nutrition, vol. 14, pp. 1496-506.
CHANDON P., WANSINK B. (2007), “The biasing health halos of fast-food restaurant health claims: lower calorie estimates and higher side-dish consumption intentions”, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 34, n. 3, pp. 301-314.
EUROPEAN COMMISSION (2006), “Regulation (EC) no. 1924/2006 of the European parliament and of the council of 20th December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods”, Official Journal European Union, vol. 404, pp. 9-25.
FENKO A., KERSTEN L., BIALKOVA S. (2016), “Overcoming consumer scepticism toward food labels: The role of multisensory experience”, Food quality and preference, vol. 48, pp. 81-92.
FSA (2002), Health claims and food packaging-Consumer-related qualitative research, Food Standards Agency London.
HE B., LONG W., LI X., YANG W., CHEN Y., ZHU Y. (2018), “Sugar-sweetened beverages consumption positively associated with the risks of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia among Children aged 7-18 years in South China”, Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, vol. 25, n. 1, pp. 81-89.
HIEKE S., KULJANIC N., PRAVST I., MIKLAVEC K., KAUR A., BROWN K.A., EGAN B.M., PFEIFER K., GRACIA A., RAYNER M. (2016), “Prevalence of nutrition and health-related claims on pre-packaged foods: a five-country study in Europe”, Nutrients, vol. 8, pp. 137.
HIGGINS E.T. (1997), “Beyond pleasure and pain”, American Psychologist, vol. 52, pp. 1280-1300.
HOEFKENS C., VERBEKE W., VAN CAMP J. (2011), “European consumers’ perceived importance of qualifying and disqualifying nutrients in food choices”, Food Quality and Preference, vol. 22, n. 6, pp. 550-558.
ILES I.A., NAN X., VERRILL L. (2018), “Nutrient content claims: How they impact perceived healthfulness of fortified snack foods and the moderating effects of nutrition facts labels”, Health communication, vol. 33, n. 10, 1308-1316.
JRIBI S., ISMAIL H.B., DOGUI D., DEBBABI H. (2021), “Consumer Behaviour toward Food Labels and its Implication on Food Waste during COVID-19 Crisis in Tunisia”, International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, vol. 5, n. 4, pp. 405-423.
JOHNSON R.K., APPEL L.J., BRANDS M., HOWARD B.V., LEFEVRE M., LUSTIG R.H., ... WYLIE-ROSETT J. (2009), “Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association”, Circulation, vol. 120, n. 11, pp. 1011-1020.
KAHNEMAN D., TVERSKY A. (2013), “Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk”, in Handbook of the fundamentals of financial decision making: Part I, pp. 99-127.
KAMARULZAMAN N.H., JAMAL K., VIJAYAN G., AB. JALIL S.M. (2014), “Will Consumers Purchase Stevia as a Sugar Substitute?: An Exploratory Study on Consumer Acceptance”, Journal of Food Products Marketing, vol. 20(sup1), pp. 122-139.
KAUR A., SCARBOROUGH P., RAYNER M. (2017). “A systematic review, and meta-analyses, of the impact of health-related claims on dietary choices”, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 14 n.1, pp. 1-17.
KREUTER M., BRENNAN L., SCHARFF D., LUKWAGO S. (1997), “Do nutrition label readers eat healthier diets? Behavioral correlates of adults’ use of food labels”, American journal of preventive medicine, vol. 13, pp. 277-283.
KRISTAL A., LEVY L., PATTERSON R., LI S. (1998), “Trends in food label use with new nutrition labeling regulations”, American Journal of Public Health, vol. 88, n. 8, pp. 1212-1215.
LÄHTEENMÄKI L., LAMPILA P., GRUNERT K., BOZTUG Y., UELAND Ø., ÅSTRÖM A., MARTINSDÓTTIR E. (2010), “Impact of health-related claims on the perception of other product attributes”, Food Policy, vol. 35, n. 3, pp. 230-239.
LAWRENCE M., GERMOV J. (2004), “Future Food: The politics of functional foods and health claims”, in: GERMOV J., WILLIAMS L. (eds.), A Sociology of Food and Nutrition: The Social Appetite. South Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press.
LEVIN I.P., SCHNEIDER S.L., GAETH G.J. (1998), “All frames are not created equal: A typology and critical analysis of framing effects”, Organizational behavior and human decision processes, vol. 76, n. 2, pp. 149-188.
MARKEY O., LOVEGROVE J.A., METHVEN L. (2015), “Sensory profiles and consumer acceptability of a range of sugar-reduced products on the UK market”, Food Research International, vol. 72, pp. 133-139.
MAYHEW A.J., LOCK K., KELISHADI R., SWAMINATHAN S., MARCILIO C.S., IQBAL R., DEHGHAN M., YUSUF S., CHOW C.K. (2016), “Nutrition labelling, marketing techniques, nutrition claims and health claims on chip and biscuit packages from sixteen countries”, Public Health Nutrition, vol. 19, n. 6, pp. 998-1007.
NØRGAARD M.K., BRUNSØ K. (2009), “Families’ use of nutritional information on food labels”, Food Quality and Preference, vol. 20, n. 8, pp. 597-606.
PEREZ-ESCAMILLA R., HALDEMAN L. (2002), “Food label use modifies association of income and dietary quality”, The journal of nutrition, vol. 132, pp. 768-772.
POULSEN J. (1999), “Danish consumers’ attitudes towards functional foods”, MAPP working paper (n. 62), University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, The MAPP Centre.
PRADA M., SARAIVA M., SÉRIO A., COELHO S., GODINHO C. A., GARRIDO M. V. (2021), “The impact of sugar-related claims on perceived healthfulness, caloric value and expected taste of food products”, Food Quality and Preference, vol. 94, pp. 104331.
RAGHUNATHAN R., NAYLOR R.W., HOYER W.D. (2006), “The unhealthy= tasty intuition and its effects on taste inferences, enjoyment, and choice of food products”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 70, n. 4, pp. 170-184.
REALINI C.E., KALLAS Z., PÉREZ-JUAN M., GÓMEZ I., OLLETA J.L., BERIAIN M.J., SAÑUDO C. (2014), “Relative importance of cues underlying Spanish consumers’ beef choice and segmentation, and consumer liking of beef enriched with n-3 and CLA fatty acids”, Food Quality and Preference, vol. 33, pp. 74-85.
REID D.J., HENDRICKS S.M. (1994), “Consumer understanding and use of fat and cholesterol information on food labels”, Canadian journal of public health - Revue canadienne de sante publique, vol. 85, n. 5, pp. 334-337.
ROE B., LEVY A.S., DERBY B.M. (1999), “The impact of health claims on consumer search and product evaluation outcomes: results from FDA experimental data”, Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, vol. 18, n. 1, pp. 89-105.
SMIGLAK-KRAJEWSKA M., WOJCIECHOWSKA J. (2021), “Consumer versus Organic Products in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Opportunities and Barriers to Market Development”, Energies, vol. 14, pp. 5566.
SVEDERBERG E. (2002), Consumers’ views regarding health claims on two food packages, Lund: Department of Education, Lund University.
TALATI Z., PETTIGREW S., NEAL B., DIXON H., HUGHES C., KELLY B., MILLER C. (2017), “Consumers’ responses to health claims in the context of other on-pack nutrition information: A systematic review”, Nutrition Reviews, vol. 75 n. 4, pp. 260-273.
UNDERWOOD R.L. (2003), “The Communicative Power of Product Packaging: Creating Brand Identity Via Lived and Mediated Experience”, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, winter, pp. 62-76.
UNDERWOOD R.L., KLEIN N.M., BURKE R.R. (2001), “Packaging Communication: Attentional Effects of Product Imagery”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 10, n. 7, pp. 403-422.
VAN KLEEF, E., VAN TRIJP, H. C., LUNING, P. (2005), “Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation”, Appetite, vol. 44, n. 3, pp. 299-308.
VAN TRIJP H.C.M., VAN DER LANS I.A. (2007), “Consumer perceptions of nutrition and health claims”, Appetite, vol. 48, n. 3, pp. 305-324.
VERBEKE W., WARD R.W. (2001), “A fresh meat almost ideal demand system incorporating negative TV press and advertising impact”, Agricultural economics, vol. 25, n. 2‐3, pp. 359-374.
VERGURA, D. T., ZERBINI, C., LUCERI, B. (2019). “Palm oil free” vs “sustainable palm oil”: the impact of claims on consumer perception”, British Food Journal, vol. 121, n. 9, pp. 2027-2035.
WELLARD L., HUGHES C., TSANG Y.W., WATSON W., CHAPMAN K. (2015), “Investigating fruit and vegetable claims on Australian food packages”, Public health nutrition, vol. 18, n. 15, pp. 2729-2735.
WILLIAMS P. (2005), “Consumer understanding and use of health claims for foods”, Nutrition reviews, vol. 63, n. 7, pp. 256-264.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (2003), Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. Available online: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42665/WHO_TRS_916.pdf;jsessionid=F12FAE969883F91A54EBA6A738CFA0B3?sequence=1