Open social innovation: towards a refined definition looking to actors and processes
Keywords:social innovation, open social innovation, innovation collaboration, open innovation
Purpose of the paper: Despite the abundance of studies on social innovation, the focus is often on non-profit organizations whose primary purpose is to attain social change, while the involvement of external actors in social innovation development is still neglected in literature. Therefore, this paper seeks to shed light on the open social innovation concept.
Methodology: The open social innovation idea is studied through a conceptual paper, which involves a literature review of social innovation and open innovation models.
Findings: The research outlines the open aspect of social innovation, underlining the actors and the processes that are involved in generating and spreading ideas that can address a social change.
Limitations: The study has focused on a literature review without empirical analyses. Case studies or quantitative approaches could represent interesting avenues for further research.
Originality of the paper: On one hand, studies on open innovation have traditionally neglected the social sector or social aspects that are investigated in this paper. On the other hand, studies on social innovation do not consider extensively collaborations or open ways to innovate.
ALMIRALL E., WAREHAM J. (2008), “Living labs and open innovation: roles and applicability”, eJOV: The Electronic Journal for Virtual Organization and Networks, n. 10, pp. 21-46.
BODIN Ö., CRONA B.I. (2009), “The role of social networks in natural resource governance: What relational patterns make a difference?”, Global Environmental Change, vol. 19, n. 3, pp. 366-374.
BRESCIANI S., THRASSOU A., VRONTIS D. (2013), “Change through innovation in family businesses: evidence from an Italian sample”, World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 9, n. 2, pp. 195-215.
BRESCIANI S., FERRARIS A., SANTORO G., NILSEN H.R. (2016), “Wine Sector: Companies’ Performance and Green Economy as a Means of Societal Marketing”, Journal of Promotion Management, vol. 22, n. 2, pp. 251-267.
BROWN T., WYATT J. (2015), “Design thinking for social innovation”, Annual Review of Policy Design, vol. 3, n. 1, pp. 1-10.
BRUGMANN J., PRAHALAD C.K. (2007), “Cocreating business’s new social compact”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 85, n. 2, pp. 80-90.
CAJAIBA-SANTANA G. (2014), “Social innovation: Moving the field forward. A conceptual framework”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, n. 82, pp. 42-51.
CALZA F., DEZI L., SCHIAVONE F., SIMONI M. (2014), “The intellectual capital of business incubators”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 15, n. 4, pp. 597-610.
CARAYANNIS E.G., CAMPBELL D.F. (2009), “‘Mode 3’and‘Quadruple Helix’: toward a 21st century fractal innovation ecosystem”, International Journal of Technology Management, vol. 46, vol. 3-4, pp. 201-234.
CARAYANNIS E.G., RAKHMATULLIN R. (2014), “The quadruple/quintuple innovation helixes and smart specialisation strategies for sustainable and inclusive growth in Europe and beyond”, Journal of the Knowledge Economy, vol. 5, n. 2, pp. 212-239.
CHALMERS D. (2013), “Social Innovation: An exploration of the barriers faced by innovating organisations in the social economy”, Local Economy, vol. 28, n. 1, pp. 17-34.
CHESBROUGH H.W. (2003), Open innovation: the new imperative for creating and profiting from technology, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
CHESBROUGH H.W., CROWTHER A.K. (2006), “Beyond high tech: early adopters of open innovation in other industries”, R&D Management, vol. 36, n. 3, pp. 229-236.
CHESBROUGH H., DI MININ A. (2014), “Open social innovation”, in Chesbrough H., Vanhaverbeke W., West J. (eds) New frontiers in open innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 169-188.
COVIN J.G., SLEVIN D.P. (1998), “Adherence to plans, risk taking, and environment as predictors of firm growth”, The Journal of High Technology Management Research, vol. 9, n. 2, pp. 207-237.
DACIN M.T., DACIN P.A., TRACEY P. (2011), “Social entrepreneurship: A critique and future directions”, Organization Science, vol. 22, n. 5, pp. 1203-1213.
DART R. (2004) “The legitimacy of social enterprise”, Nonprofit Management and Leadership, vol. 14, n. 4, pp.411-424.
DAWSON P., DANIEL L. (2010), “Understanding social innovation: a provisional framework”, International Journal of Technology Management, vol. 51, n. 1, pp. 9-21.
DEL GIUDICE M., DELLA PERUTA M.R. (2013), Unpacking open innovation: Highlights from a co-evolutionary inquiry, Springer, New York.
DEL GIUDICE M., MAGGIONI V. (2014), “Managerial practices and operative directions of knowledge management within inter-firm networks: a global view”, Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 18, n. 5, pp. 841-846.
DRAYTON B., BUDINICH V. (2010), “A new alliance for global change”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 88, n. 9, pp. 56-64.
ENKEL E., GASSMANN O., CHESBROUGH H. (2009), “Open R&D and open innovation: exploring the phenomenon”, R&D Management, vol. 39, n. 4, pp. 311-316.
ETZKOWITZ H., LEYDESDORFF L. (2000), “The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and “Mode 2” to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations”, Research Policy, vol. 29, n. 2, pp. 109-123.
FERRARIS A., GRIECO C. (2015), “The role of the innovation catalyst in social innovation-an Italian case study”, Sinergie Italian Journal of Management, vol. 33, n. 97, pp. 127-144.
FERRARIS A., SANTORO G. (2014), “Come dovrebbero essere sviluppati i progetti di Social Innovation nelle Smart City? Un’analisi Comparativa”, Impresa Progetto-Electronic Journal of Management, n. 4, pp. 1-15.
FERRARIS A., SANTORO G., DEZI L. (2017), “How MNC’s subsidiaries may improve their innovative performance? The role of external sources and knowledge management capabilities”, Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 21, n. 3.
GASSMANN O., ENKEL E. (2004), “Towards a theory of open innovation: three core process archetypes”, R&D Management Conference, Lisbon.
HOCKERTS K. (2006), “Entrepreneurial opportunity in social purpose business ventures”, in Social entrepreneurship (pp. 142-154), Palgrave Macmillan UK.
HOLMES S., SMART P. (2009), “Exploring open innovation practice in firm‐nonprofit engagements: a corporate social responsibility perspective”, R&D Management, vol. 39, n. 4, pp. 394-409.
HOWALDT J., SCHWARZ M. (2010), SI: “Concepts, research fields and international trends”, Report of ESF, EU, and Aachen University, Dortmund.
HUIZINGH E.K. (2011), “Open innovation: State of the art and future perspectives”, Technovation, vol. 31, n. 1, pp. 2-9.
HULL C.E., LIO B.H. (2006), “Innovation in non-profit and for-profit organizations: Visionary, strategic, and financial considerations”, Journal of Change Management, vol. 6, n. 1, pp. 53-65.
HUSTED B.W., ALLEN D.B., KOCK N. (2015), “Value creation through social strategy”, Business and Society, vol. 54, n. 2, pp. 147-186.
JANKEL N. (2011), Radical (re) invention, London: white paper, available online.
KIM W.C., MAUBORGNE R. (2005), Blue Ocean Strategy: How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make Competition Irrelevant, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
KUHN T.S. (1962), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, University of Chicago Press., Chicago.
LETTICE F., PAREKH M. (2010), “The social innovation process: Themes, challenges and implications for practice”, International Journal of Technology Management, vol. 51, n. 1, pp. 139-158.
MAIR J., MARTÌ I. (2006), “Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight”, Journal of World Business, vol. 41, n. 1, pp. 36-44.
MARTINS T.C.M., DE SOUZA BERMEJO P.H. (2015), “Open Social Innovation”, Handbook of Research on Democratic Strategies and Citizen-Centered E-Government Services, pp. 144-163.
MOORE M.L., WESTLEY F. (2011), “Surmountable chasms: networks and social innovation for resilient systems”, Ecology and Society, vol. 16, n. 1, pp. 5.
MULGAN G. (2006), “The process of social innovation”, Innovations, vol. 1, n. 2, pp. 145-162.
MULGAN G. (2013), Social innovation, Egea spa, Milan.
MULGAN G., TUCKER S., ALI R. SANDERS B. (2007), “Social innovation: what it is, why it matters and how it can be accelerated”, Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford.
MÜLLER-SEITZ G., SYDOW J., (2012), “Open innovation at the interorganizational network level - Collaborative Practices in a Semiconductor Industry Consortium”, in Open Innovation: New Insights and Evidence Conference, Imperial College London, June 2012, pp. 25.
MURRAY R., CAULIER-GRICE J., MULGAN G. (2010), The Open Book of Social Innovation, The Young Foundation, London.
NEUMEIER S. (2012), “Why do Social Innovations in Rural Development Matter and Should They be Considered More Seriously in Rural Development Research? - Proposal for a Stronger Focus on Social Innovations in Rural Development Research”, Sociologia Ruralis, vol. 52, n. 1, pp. 48-69.
NICHOLLS A. (2006), Social entrepreneurship: New models of sustainable social change, Oxford University Press.
NICHOLLS A., MURDOCK A. (2011), Social innovation: Blurring boundaries to reconfigure markets, Palgrave Macmillan, London.
OECD (2010), SMEs, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, http://www.oecd.org/document/16/0,3746,en_2649_33956792_44938128_1_1_1_1,00.html.
OECD (2011), “Fostering Innovation to Address Social Challenges”, workshop proceedings.
OGAWA S., PILLER F.T. (2006), “Reducing the risks of new product development”, MIT Sloan Management Review, vol. 47, n. 2, pp. 65.
PHILLS J.A., DEIGLMEIER K., MILLER D.T. (2008), “Rediscovering social innovation”, Stanford Social Innovation Review, vol. 6, n. 4, pp. 34-43.
POL E., VILLE S. (2009), “Social innovation: Buzz word or enduring term?”, The Journal of Socio-Economics, vol. 38, n. 6, pp. 878-885.
PORTER M.E., KRAMER M.R. (2011), “Creating shared value”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 89, n. 1-2, pp. 62-77.
PRAHALAD C.K. (2012), “Bottom of the Pyramid as a Source of Breakthrough Innovations”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 29, n. 1, pp. 6-12.
PRAHALAD C.K., HAMMOND A. (2002), “Serving the world’s poor, profitably”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 80, n. 9, pp. 48-59.
RANGA M., ETZKOWITZ H. (2013), “Triple Helix systems: an analytical framework for innovation policy and practice in the Knowledge Society”, Industry and Higher Education, vol. 27, n. 4, pp. 237-262.
SANDULLI F.D., FERRARIS A., BRESCIANI S. (2016), “How to select the right public partner in smart city projects”, R&D Management.
SANTORO G., FERRARIS A., GIACOSA E., GIOVANDO G. (2016), “How SMEs engage in open innovation: A survey”, Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 1-14.
SANTORO G., VRONTIS D., THRASSOU A., DEZI L. (2017), “The Internet of Things: Building a knowledge management system for open innovation and knowledge management capacity”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change.
SHIGETO S. (2011), “A method that goes beyond “good practices”: a case of ristex”, in OECD (Ed.), Fostering innovation to address social challenges (pp. 45-52), OECD, Paris, France.
STREECK W., SCHMITTER P. (1995), “Community, market, state - and associations?”, in Streeck W., Schmitter P. (Eds.), Private interest government - Beyond market and state, CA: Sage, Beverly Hills.
THE YOUNG FOUNDATION (2012), Social Innovation Overview: A deliverable of the project: “The theoretical, empirical and policy foundations for building social innovation in Europe” (TEPSIE), European Commission - 7th Framework Programme, European Commission, DG Research, Brussels.
THOMPSON J.L. (2008), “Social enterprise and social entrepreneurship: where have we reached? A summary of issues and discussion points”, Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 4, n. 2, pp. 149-161.
VAN DER WAL S. (2011), “Certified Unilever Tea: Small Cup, Big Difference?”, SOMO - Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations.
VRONTIS D., VIASSONE M., THRASSOU A. (2015), “The role and potential of social networks sites in tertiary education”, Sinergie Italian Journal of Management, vol. 33, n. 97, pp. 55-81.
VRONTIS D., THRASSOU A., SANTORO G., PAPA A. (2016), “Ambidexterity, external knowledge and performance in knowledge-intensive firms”, The Journal of Technology Transfer, vol. 42, n. 2, pp. 374.
WAASDORP P., RUIJTER K. (2011), “Countries’ approaches & innovation policies to address social challenges: Opportunities and barriers”, in OECD (Ed.), Fostering innovation to address social challenges (pp. 69-74), OECD, Paris, France.
WESTLEY F., ANTADZE N. (2010), “Making a difference: strategies for scaling social innovation for greater impact”, The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, vol. 15, n. 2, pp. 1-19.
YUNUS M. (2007), “Creating a world without poverty: Social business and the future of apitalism”, Global Urban Development Magazine, vol. 4, n. 2, pp. 16-41.