The evolution of tourism in the digital era: the case of a tourism destination
Purpose of the paper: This paper studies the recent changes in the tourism business because of the increasing amount of information on the web and the consequent level of uncertainty and complexity, both for the demand and for the firms.
Methodology: This paper systematises the process of evolution in tourism in the digital era and its consequences for tourist destinations. The topic is verified empirically through a panel of experts and case study methodology to study the experts’ opinions on the process, with reference to the city of Naples.
Findings: The tourism sector has been one of the first mover sectors in ICT and digital development, with consequent evolution of the value chain and businessto-consumer relationships. The growing amount of available information has paradoxically generated an ‘informative syndrome’, which at times makes these relationships more difficult and complex.
Research limits: This paper indicates the limit of studying the issue with reference to a single case study. It represents a first step of wider research that will require further analysis, both in terms of the number of case studies and with reference to demand.
Practical implications: The quality of information and professionalism are of fundamental importance in a sector characterised by dynamism and turbulence. Marketing policies require a total revision both for firms and for tourist destinations.
Originality of the paper: This paper considers numerous aspects of the tourism sector, both on the offer and demand side. Its originality derives from the analysis of the evolution of this sector for tourists and firms, in the face of the informative syndrome issue.
ASCHAUER W. (2009), “International Colloquium of Tourism and Leisure 5.-8. Mai 2008 in Chiang Mai”, Zeitschrift für Tourismuswissenschaft, vol. 1, n. 1, pp. 101-103.
BARNEY J. (1991), “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage”, Journal of management, vol. 17, n. 1, pp. 99-120.
BIEGER T., WITTMER A. (2006), “Air transport and tourism-Perspectives and challenges for destinations, airlines and governments”, Journal of Air Transport Management, vol. 12, n. 1, pp. 40-46.
BRONDONI S.M. (2000), Patrimonio di marca e gestione d’impresa, Symphonya. Emerging Issues in Management, Giappichelli, Torino.
BRUNETTI F., TESTA F., UGOLINI M. (2011), “Il cliente nell’agenzia viaggi”, Sinergie, n. 66, pp. 181-211.
BUHALIS D. (2000), “Marketing the competitive destination of the future”, Tourism Management, vol. 21, n. 1, pp. 97-116.
BUHALIS D., LAW R. (2008), “Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet-The state of eTourism research”, Tourism management, vol. 29, n. 4, pp. 609-623.
BUHALIS D., O’CONNOR P. (2005), “Information communication technology revolutionizing tourism”, Tourism recreation research, vol. 30, n. 3, pp. 7-16.
CASALÓ L.V., FLAVIÁN C., GUINALÍU M., EKINCI Y. (2015), “Avoiding the dark side of positive online consumer reviews: Enhancing reviews’ usefulness for high risk-averse travelers”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 68, n. 9, pp. 1829-1835.
CHIARINI A., VAGNONI E. (2017), “Strategic management of industry 4.0. An exploratory research”, Atti del convegno Sinergie-Sima 2017 – Value Co-Creation: management challenges for business and society, pp. 220-224.
CINMAN J. (2008), “Tough to manage reputations in a digital world: online”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 2008, n. Jun/Jul 2008, p. 42.
COSHALL J.T. (2009), “Combining volatility and smoothing forecasts of UK demand for international tourism”, Tourism Management, vol. 30, n. 4, pp. 495-511.
CROTTS J.C., ERDMANN R. (2000), “Does national culture influence consumers’ evaluation of travel services? A test of Hofstede’s model of cross-cultural differences”, Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 10, n. 6, pp. 410-419.
DE NISCO A., MAINOLFI G., MARINO V., NAPOLITANO M.R. (2012), “Tourism experience, country image and postvisit intentions: a study on international tourists in Italy”, International Marketing and the Country of Origin Effect. The Global Impact of Made in Italy, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp. 65-80.
DECROP A. (1999), Tourists’ decision-making and behavior processes, The Haworth press, New York.
DEL CHIAPPA G., FORTEZZA F. (2017), “Analisi delle motivazioni alla base del turismo matrimoniale: un’indagine esplorativa”, Sinergie Italian Journal of Management, vol. 34, n. 101, pp. 141-157.
DELLA CORTE V. (2000), La gestione dei sistemi locali di offerta turistica, Cedam, Padova.
DELLA CORTE V. (2009), Imprese e Sistemi Turistici. Il management, Egea, Milano.
DELLA CORTE V. (2013), Imprese e Sistemi Turistici. Il management, II Edizione, Egea, Milano.
DELLA CORTE V., ARIA M. (2014), “Why strategic networks often fail: Some empirical evidence from the area of Naples”, Journal of Tourism Management, vol. 45 , pp. 3-15.
DELLA CORTE V., ARIA M. (2016), “Coopetition and sustainable competitive advantage. The case of tourist destination”, Journal of Tourism Management, vol. 54 , pp. 524-540.
DELLA CORTE V., SCIARELLI M. (2012), Destination management e logica sistemica. Un confronto internazionale, Giappichelli, Torino.
DELLA CORTE V., SCIARELLI M., CASCELLA C., DEL GAUDIO G. (2015), “Customer satisfaction in tourist destination: The case of tourism offer in the city of Naples”, Journal of Investment and Management, vol. 4, n. 1-1, pp. 39-50.
DOLNICAR S. (2005), “Understanding barriers to leisure travel: Tourist fears as a marketing basis”, Journal of Vacation Marketing, vol. 1.1, n. 3, pp. 197-208.
DRAKOS K., KUTAN A.M. (2003), “Regional effects of terrorism on tourism in three Mediterranean countries”, Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 47, n. 5, pp. 621-641.
DUMAN T., KOZAK M. (2010), “The Turkish tourism product: Differentiation and competitiveness”, Anatolia, vol. 21, n. 1, pp. 89-106.
FOTIS J., BUHALIS D., ROSSIDES N. (2012), “Social media use and impact during the holiday travel planning process”, in Fuchs M., Ricci F., Cantoni, L., eds. Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, Austria, 13-24.
FRANCH M., MICH L., MARTINI U. (2001), “A method for the classification of relationships and information needs of tourist destination players”, in Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2001. Proceedings of the International Conference in Montreal, Canada, 2001. Eds. Sheldon P.J., Woeber K.W., Fesenmaier D.R., Vienna: Springer, 2001, p. 42-51. Proceedings of: ENTER 2001, Montreal (Canada), 24 -27 April 2001.
FUCHS G., REICHEL A. (2011), “An exploratory inquiry into destination risk perceptions and risk reduction strategies of first time vs. repeat visitors to a highly volatile destination”, Tourism Management, vol. 32, n. 2, pp. 266-276.
FUCHS M., HÖPKEN W., LEXHAGEN M. (2014), “Big data analytics for knowledge generation in tourism destinations-A case from Sweden”, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, vol. 3, n. 4, pp. 198-209.
GRETZEL U., YOO K.H. (2008), “Use and impact of online travel reviews”, in Information and communication technologies in tourism 2008, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, Austria pp. 35-46.
GUTMAN Y (2009), “Where do we go from here: The pasts, presents and futures of Ground Zero”, Memory Studies, vol. 2, n. 1, pp. 55-70.
HADJIKAKOU M., CHENOWETH J., MILLER, G. (2013), “Estimating the direct and indirect water use of tourism in the eastern Mediterranean”, Journal of Environmental Management, vol.1, n. 14, pp. 548-556.
HAN H., HSU L. T. J., LEE, J. S. (2009), “Empirical investigation of the roles of attitudes toward green behaviors, overall image, gender, and age in hotel customers’ eco-friendly decision-making process”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 28, n. 4, pp. 519-528.
HAYS S., PAGE S. J., BUHALIS D. (2013), “Social media as a destination marketing tool: its use by national tourism organisations”, Current issues in Tourism, vol. 16, n. 3, pp. 211-239.
IAIA L., FAIT M., CAVALLO F., SCORRANO P., MAIZZA A. (2014), “Experiential marketing per il brand-land dei prodotti tipici: diventare marchio comunicando il territorio”, Atti del XXVI Convegno annuale di Sinergie 2014 - Manifattura: quale futuro?, Università di Cassino e Lazio Meridionale, 13th-14th November 2014.
KARPOVICH A.I. (2010), “Theoretical approaches to film-motivated tourism”, Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, vol. 7, n. 1, pp. 7-20.
KIM S.S., WONG K.K., CHO M. (2007), “Assessing the economic value of a world heritage site and willingness-to-pay determinants: A case of Changdeok Palace”, Tourism Management, vol. 28, n. 1, pp. 317-322.
KIMURA M., SAITO K., NAKANO R. (2007), “Extracting influential nodes for information diffusion on a social network”, AAAI, vol. 7 , pp. 1371-1376.
KOO B., MANTIN B., O’CONNOR P. (2011), “Online distribution of airline tickets: Should airlines adopt a single or a multi-channel approach?”, Tourism Management, vol. 32, n. 1, pp. 69-74.
KOTOUA S., ILKAN M. (2017), “Tourism destination marketing and information technology in Ghana”, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, vol. 6, n. 2, pp. 127-135.
KOZAK M., CROTTS J.C., LAW R., “The Impact of the Perception of Risk on International Travellers”, International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 9, n. 4, July 2007, pp. 233 - 242
UMACHANDRAN K., FERDINAND D.S., JURČIĆ I., DELLA CORTE V. (2017), “e-commerce: A Social Engagement Tool”, OSR Journal of Economics and Finance (IOSR-JEF), vol. 8, n. 5, pp. 60-64.
LARSEN S., WOLFF K. (2016), “Exploring assumptions about cruise tourists’ visits to ports”, Tourism Management Perspectives, vol. 17, January 2016, pp. 44-49.
LEE C.F., HUANG H.I., YEH H.R. (2010), “Developing an evaluation model for destination attractiveness: Sustainable forest recreation tourism in Taiwan”, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 18, n. 6, pp. 811-828.
LI G., WONG K.K., SONG H., WITT S.F. (2006), “Tourism demand forecasting: A time varying parameter error correction model”, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 45, n. 2, pp. 175-185.
LITVIN S.W., GOLDSMITH R. E., PAN B. (2008), “Electronic word-of-mouth in hospitality and tourism management”, Tourism Management, vol. 29 n. 3, pp. 458-468.
LUQUE-MARTÍNEZ T., ALBERTO CASTAÑEDA-GARCÍA J., FRÍAS-JAMILEN D.M., MUÑOZ-LEIVA F., RODRÍGUEZ-MOLINA M.A. (2007), “Determinants of the use of the internet as a tourist information source”, The Service Industries Journal, vol. 27, n. 7, pp. 881-891.
MANGION M.L., DURBARRY R., SINCLAIR M.T. (2005), “Tourism competitiveness: price and quality”, Tourism Economics, vol. 1, n. 1, pp. 45-68.
MARTINI U. (2005), Management dei sistemi territoriali. Gestione e marketing delle destinazioni turistiche, Giappichelli, Torino.
MCCABE S., LI X.R. (2017), “Digging deeper into decision-making of Chinese long-haul outbound tourists: A two-stage preference-estimation approach”, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, vol. 6, n. 3, pp. 267-275.
MICH L. (2011) “La web presence delle destinazioni turistiche. Facebook in Tourism”, eBook, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
MICH L., FRANCH M., GAIO L. (2003), “Evaluating and designing web site quality”, IEEE MultiMedia, vol. 10, n. 1, pp. 34-43.
MICH, L., FRANCH, M., MARZANI, P. (2004), “Guidelines for excellence in the web sites of tourist destinations: A study of the regional tourist boards in the Alp”, IADIS International Conference e-Society.
MICHOPOULOU E., BUHALIS D. (2008), “Performance measures of net-enabled hypercompetitive industries: The case of tourism”, International Journal of Information Management, vol. 28, n. 3, pp. 168-180.
MORAKABATI Y., KAPUŚCIŃSKI G. (2016), “Personality, risk perception, benefit sought and terrorism effect”, International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 18, n. 5, pp. 506-514.
MORGAN N., PRITCHARD A., PRIDE R. (2007), Destination branding, Routledge, UK.
MURPHY J., GRETZEL U., PESONEN J., ELORINNE A. L., SILVENNOINEN, K. (2018), “Household Food Waste, Tourism and Social Media: A Research Agenda”, in Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism, January 2018, Springer, Cham, pp. 228-239.
NAPOLITANO M.R., DE NISCO A. (2004), “Vantaggio competitivo territoriale e configurazioni distrettuali nel turismo. Il ruolo e le potenzialità del cluster”, G. Marotta (a cura di). Nuovi turismi e politiche di gestione nella destinazione. Situazione e prospettive per le aree rurali della Campania, Franco Angeli, Milano.
PAN B., FESENMAIER D.R. (2006), “Online information search: vacation planning process”, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 33, n. 3, pp. 809-832.
PENCARELLI T., FORLANI F. (2011), “Il marketing dei distretti turistici-sistemi vitali nell’economia delle esperienze”, Sinergie, n. 58, pp. 231-277
PIKE S. (2009), “Destination brand positions of a competitive set of near-home destinations”, Tourism management, vol. 30, n. 6, pp. 857-866.
PIZAM A., REICHEL A. (1996), “The effect of nationality on tourist behavior: Israeli tour-guides’ perceptions”, Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, vol. 4, n. 1, pp. 23-49.
PRIDEAUX B. (2000), “The role of the transport system in destination development”, Tourism management, vol. 21, n. 1, pp. 53-63.
PUAR J. K. (2002), “Circuits of queer mobility: Tourism, travel, and globalization”, GLQ: A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, vol. 8, n. 1, pp. 101-137.
REISINGER Y., MAVONDO F. (2005), “Travel anxiety and intentions to travel internationally: Implications of travel risk perception”, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 43, n. 3, pp. 212-225.
RITA P. (2000), “Tourism in the European Union”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 12, n. 7, pp. 434-436.
ROEHL W.S., FESENMAIER D.R. (1992), “Risk perceptions and pleasure travel: An exploratory analysis”, Journal of Travel research, vol. 30, n. 4, pp. 17-26.
SCIARELLI S., DELLA CORTE V. (2011), “Il comportamento del turista in condizioni di forte incertezza decisionale”, Sinergie, n. 66, pp-137-152.
SIGALA M. (2011), “eCRM 2.0 applications and trends: The use and perceptions of Greek tourism firms of social networks and intelligence”, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 27, n. 2, pp. 655-661.
SIMEON M.I., BUONINCONTRI P., CINQUEGRANI F., MARTONE A. (2017), “Exploring tourists’ cultural experiences in Naples through online reviews”, Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 8, n. 2, pp. 220-238.
SIMPSON P.M., SIGUAW J.A. (2008), “Destination word of mouth: The role of traveler type, residents, and identity salience”, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 47, n. 2, pp. 167-182.
SMALLMAN C., MOORE K. (2010), “Process studies of tourists’decision-making”, Annals of tourism research, vol. 37, n. 2, pp. 397-422.
SÖNMEZ S.F., GRAEFE A.R. (1998), “Determining future travel behavior from past travel experience and perceptions of risk and safety”, Journal of Travel Research, vol. 37, n. 2, pp. 171-177.
STAKE R.E. (2013), Multiple case study analysis, Guilford Press, New York. STAMBOULIS Y., SKAYANNIS P. (2003), “Innovation strategies and technology for experience-based tourism”, Tourism Management, vol. 24, n. 1, pp. 35-43.
STIEGLITZ S., DANG-XUAN L. (2013), “Emotions and information diffusion in social media-sentiment of microblogs and sharing behavior”, Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 29, n. 4, pp. 217-248.
UMACHANDRAN K., FERDINAND D.S., JURČIĆ I., DELLA CORTE V. (2017), “e-commerce: A Social Engagement Tool”, IOSR Journal of Economics and Finance, vol. 8, n. 5, pp. 60-64.
URRY J. (2003), “Social networks, travel and talk1”, The British Journal of Sociology, vol. 54, n. 2, pp. 155-175.
WEI Y.W. (2013), “Exploring the Cultural Heritage Landscape in Web 3.0 Era Tourism”, Doctoral dissertation, Politecnico di Torino.
WÖBER K.W. (2003), “Information supply in tourism management by marketing decision support systems”, Tourism Management, vol. 24, n. 3, pp. 241-255.
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (2016), “The economic impact of travel & tourism”, World Trade Organization, World Travel & Tourism Council, London, UK.
WU D.C., LI G., SONG H. (2012), “Economic analysis of tourism consumption dynamics: A time-varying parameter demand system approach”, Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 39, n. 2, pp. 667-685.
XIANG Z., GRETZEL U. (2010), “Role of social media in online travel information search”, Tourism Management, vol. 31, n. 2, pp. 179-188.
YANG E.C.L., SHARIF S.P., KHOO-LATTIMORE C. (2015), “Tourists’ risk perception of risky destinations: The case of Sabah’s eastern coast”, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 15, n. 33, pp 206-221.