A new scale of brand lovemarks


  • Avichai Shuv-Ami




lovemarks; brand; love; respect; recommendation; price premium


Purpose of the paper: The current study attempts to provide a new lovemarks scale that predicts consumers behavioral outcomes. This scale also bridges over some of the inconsistencies of the measurement of “brand love” that also measure “brand respect”.

Methodology: In order to test the Lovemarks scale, 3 studies were conducted. Study 1 applied Exploratory Factor Analysis using Principal Component exploratory factor analysis. Study 2 used second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with a maximum likelihood fitting function of the two-component solution. Study 3 measured the nomological validity of the assessed Lovemarks scale by testing its relations with four other relevant scales.

Results: Using EFA and CFA, the reliability and validity of the scale were divided into four different product categories: dairy companies, cellular network providers, banks, and fashion retail chains. The scale does have strong positive correlations with attitude, preference, price premium and recommendation.

Research limitations: The main limitation of the current research is that Study 2 used CFA testing only for second-order factors and not third-order factors, which would have also enabled the testing of the antecedents of the scales items (such as intimacy or trust).

Practical implications: This scale helps to predict consumer behavior and set an effective marketing strategy for the brand. It thus gives directions for product adjustments and establishes effective advertising, marketing communication strategies and brand pricing strategy.

Originality of the paper: The current study is testing a new Lovemarks scale on the basis of four different product categories: dairy companies, cellular network providers, banks, and fashion retail chains.


AAKER D.A. (1996), Measuring Brand Equity across products and markets”, California Management Review, vol. 38, n. 3, pp. 102-20.

AHUVIA A.C. (2005), “Beyond the extended self: Loved objects and consumers’ identity narratives”, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 32, n. 1, pp. 171-184.

ARBUCKLE J.L. (2009), Amos 18 User’s Guide, SPSS Incorporated.

BATRA R., AHUVIA A.C., BAGOZZI R.P. (2012), “Brand love”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 76, n. 2, pp. 1-16.

BENTLER P.M., BONETT D.G. (1980), “Significance Tests and Goodness of Fit in the Analysis of Covariance Structures”, Psychological Bulletin, vol. 88, n. 3, pp. 588-606.

BERGKVIST L. BECH-LARSEN T. (2010), “Two studies of consequences and actionable antecedents of brand love”, Brand Management, vol. 17, n. 7, pp. 504-518.

BROADBENT S., BRIDSON K., FERKINS L., and RENTSCHLER R. (2010), “Brand love, Brand image and Loyalty in Australian Elite Sport”, Proceedings, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, ANZMAC,Christchurch, New Zealand.

CARROL B.A., AHUVIA A.C. (2006), “Some antecedents and outcomes of brand love”, Marketing Letters, vol. 17, n. 2, pp. 79-89.

CHAUDHURI A. HOLBROOK B.M. (2001), “The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: The Role of Brand Loyalty”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 65, 2 April, pp. 81-93.

CHO E., FIORE A.M. RUSSELL W.D (2015), “Validation of a Fashion Brand Image Scale Capturing Cognitive, Sensory, and Affective Associations: Testing Its Role in an Extended Brand Equity Model”, Psychology and Marketing, vol. 32, n. 1, pp. 28-48.

HAIR J.F., BLACK C.W., BABIN J.B., ANDERSON E.R., TATHAM L.R. (2006), Multivariate Data Analysis, (6th ed.),Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

HELSON H. (1964), Adaptation-Level Theory, Harper & Row, New York.

HOWARD J.A., SHETH, J.N. (1969), The Theory of Buyer Behavior, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

HU L.T., BENTLER M.P. (1999), “Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives”, Structural Equation Modeling, vol. 6, n. 1, pp. 1-55.

JARVIS B.C., MACKENZIE B.S., PODSAKOFF M.P. (2003), “A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research”, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 30, n. 9, pp. 199-218.

KELLER L.K. (1993), “Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 57, n. 1, pp. 1-22.

KELLER L.K. (2008), Strategic Brand Management, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

KELLER L.K., and Donald R. Lehmann, (2006), “Brands and Branding: Research Findings and Future Priorities”, Marketing Science, vol. 25, n. 6, November-December, pp. 740-759.

KLINE R.B. (1998), “Software review: Software programs for structural equation modeling: Amos, EQS, and LISREL”, Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, vol. 16, n. 4, pp. 343-364.

LITTLE D.T. (1997), “Mean and Covariance Structures (MACS), Analyses of Cross-Cultural Data: Practical and Theoretical Issues”, Multivariate Behavioral Research, vol. 32, n. 1, pp. 53-76.

MANO H., OLIVER L.R. (1993), “Assessing the Dimensionality and Structure of the Consumption Experience: Evaluation, Feeling, and Satisfaction”, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 20, n. 3, pp. 451-466.

MAXIAN W., BRADLEY D.S., WISE W., TOULOUSE N.E. (2013), “Brand Love is in the Heart: Physiological Responding to Advertised Brands”, Psychology and Marketing, vol. 30, n. 6, pp. 469-478.

NOEL A., MERUNKA D., VALWTTE-FLORENCE P. (2008), “When consumers love their brands: Exploring the concept and its dimensions”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 61, pp. 1062-1075.

OLIVER L.R. (1980), “A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions”, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 17, n. 4, pp. 460-469.

OLIVER L.R. (1996), Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer, McGraw-Hill, New York.

OLIVER L.R. (1993), “Cognitive, Affective, and Attribute Bases of the Satisfaction Response”, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 20, n. 3, pp. 418-430.

ORTIZ H.M., HARRISON M.P. (2011), “Crazy Little Thing Called Love: A Consumer-Retailer Relationship”, Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, vol. 5, n. 3, pp. 68-80.

PATWARDHAN H., BALASUBRAMANIAN K.S. (2013), “Reflections on emotional attachment to brands: Brand romance and brand love”, Journal of Customer Behaviour, vol. 12, n. 1, pp. 73-79.

PAVEL C. (2013), “What is Behind the Lovemarks Concept?”, Quality - Access to Success., vol. 14, n. 2 (May Supplement 2), pp. 482-489.

PAWLE P., COOPER P. (2006), “Measuring Emotion - Lovemarks, The Future Beyond Brands”, Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 46, n. 1, pp. 38-48.

RIGDON E.E. (1996), “CFI versus RMSEA: A Comparison of Two Fit Indexes for Structural Equation Modeling”, Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, vol. 3, n. 4, pp. 369-379.

ROBERTS K. (2004), Lovemarks: The Future Beyond Brands, Powerhouse Books, NY.

ROBERTS K. (2005), Lovemarks: The Future Beyond Brands, (2nd edition), Powerhouse Books, NY.

ROSSITIER R.J, BELLMAN S. (2012), “Emotional Branding Pays off: How Brands Meet Share of Requirements Through Bonding, Companionship, and Love”, Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 52, n. 3, pp. 291-296.

ROSSITIER R.J (2012), “A new C-OAR-SE-based content-valid and predictively valid measure that distinguishes brand love from brand liking”, Marketing Letters, vol. 23, n. 3, pp. 905-916.

RUBIN Z. (1970), “Measurement of Romantic Love”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 16, n. 2, pp. 265-273.

SARKAR A. (2011), “Romancing with A Brand: A Conceptual Analysis of Romanic Consumer- Brand Relationship”, Management and Marketing Challenges for the Knowledge Society, vol. 6, n. 1, pp. 79-94.

SHIMP A.T., MADDEN J.T. (1988), “Consumer-Object Relations: A Conceptual Framework Based Analogously on Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love”, Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 15, n. 1, pp. pp. 163-168.

SHUV-AMI A. (2011), “The Impact of Love and Quality on Brand Satisfaction and Intentions”, presented and published in the Proceedings of the ANZMAC Conference, Perth Australia, November.

SHUV-AMI A. (2012), “Brand Commitment: A New Four-Dimensional (4 E’s), Conceptualization and Scale”, Journal of Customer Behaviour, Forthcoming autumn issue, vol. 11, n. 3, pp. 281-305.

SHUV-AMI A. (2012), “Brand Commitment: A New Four-Dimensional (4 E’s), Conceptualization and Scale”, Journal of Customer Behaviour, vol. 11, n. 3, pp. 281-305.

STERNBERG R.J. (1986), “A triangular theory of love”, Psychological Review, vol. 93, n. 2, pp. 119-135.

TABACHNICK G.B., FIDELL S.L. (2007), Experimental designs using ANOVA, Thomson/Brooks/Cole.

TSIOTSON R. (2006), “The Role of Perceived Product Quality and Overall Satisfaction on Purchase Intentions”, International Journal of Consumer Studies, vol. 2, March, pp. 207–217.

WEAVER D., BRICKMAN P. (1974), “Expectancy, Feedback and Disconfirmation as Independent Factors in Outcome Satisfaction”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 30, n. 3, pp. 420-428.

WHANG Y.O., ALLEN J., SAHOURY N., ZHANG H. (2004), “Falling in Love with a Product: The Structure of a Romantic Consumer-Product Relationship”, Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 31, n. 1, pp. 320-327.