“I am apt to show off”: exploring the relationship between entrepreneurs’ narcissism and start-up innovation

  • Simona Leonelli
  • Federica Ceci
  • Francesca Masciarelli
Keywords: narcissism; innovation; market scenarios; start-ups; entrepreneurship

Abstract

Purpose of the paper: In start-ups, innovation strategies are influenced by the entrepreneur’s personality. We aim to investigate such influence by exploring how entrepreneurs’ narcissism affects start-ups’ innovation.

Methodology: We integrated survey data on a cross-industry sample of 115 Italian entrepreneurs with secondary data consisting of patents, economic and financial information from a public database. The survey uses the NPI-16 scale to measure entrepreneurs’ narcissism.

Results: Results showed a non-linear relationship between entrepreneurs’ narcissism and start-ups’ innovation: high and low levels of narcissism are detrimental to innovation. Moreover, we found a substitution effect between market dynamism and start-ups’ innovation; the higher the level of market dynamism, the more negative the effect of entrepreneurs’ narcissism on innovation.

Research limitations: Being based on an Italian sample, the study does not address the impact of narcissism in other cultures.

Practical implications: Our study identifies the mechanisms through which entrepreneurs’ narcissism affects start-ups’ innovation and explores how the market scenario affects the relationship between entrepreneurs’ narcissism and innovation.

Originality of the paper: We show that narcissism might be positive for firms and identify how entrepreneurs’ narcissism affects start-ups’ innovation. We demonstrate that market scenario affects the relationship between entrepreneurs’ narcissism and innovation, while also showing that contextual factors can reveal important contingencies. From a methodological viewpoint, we applied the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) scale to a sample of entrepreneurs. Previous work mainly used secondary data consisting of business reports and interviews, or employed the NPI in samples of MBA students.

References

ABATECOLA G., CRISTOFARO M. (2019), “Ingredients of Sustainable CEO Behaviour: Theory and Practice”, Sustainability, vol. 11, n. 7, pp. 1-15.

ABATECOLA G., MANDARELLI G., POGGESI S. (2013), “The personality factor: how top management teams make decisions. A literature review”, Journal of Management and Governance, vol. 17, n. 4, pp. 1073-1100.

ABEBE M., ALVARADO D.A. (2013), “Founder-CEO status and firm performance: an exploratory study of alternative perspectives”, Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. 6, n. 4, pp. 343-357.

AIKEN L.S., WEST S.G. (1991), Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions, Sage Publications, California (CA).

AMES D.R., ROSE P., ANDERSON C.P. (2006), “The NPI-16 as a short measure of narcissism”, Journal of Research in Personality, vol. 40, n. 4, pp. 440-450.

BARELDS D.P., DIJKSTRA P. (2010), “Narcissistic personality inventory: structure of the adapted dutch version”, Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 51, n. 2, pp. 132-138.

BARKER V.L.I., PATTERSON JR P.W., MUELLER G.C. (2001), “Organizational causes and strategic consequences of the extent of top management team replacement during turnaround attempts”, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 38, n. 2, pp. 235-270.

BARON R.A., MARKMAN G.D. (2003), “Beyond social capital: The role of entrepreneurs' social competence in their financial success”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 18, n. 1, pp. 41-60.

BARON R.A., TANG J. (2011), “The role of entrepreneurs in firm-level innovation: Joint effects of positive affect, creativity, and environmental dynamism”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 26, n. 1, pp. 49-60.

BERSON Y., OREG S., DVIR T. (2008), “CEO values, organizational culture and firm outcomes”, Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, vol. 29, n. 5, pp. 615-633.

BHATTACHARYA M., BLOCH H. (2004), “Determinants of innovation”, Small Business Economics, vol. 22, n. 2, pp. 155-162.

BOGAN V.L., FERTIG A.R., JUST D.R. (2014), Self-employment and mental health, Available at SSRN 2259765.

BRISLIN R.W. (1980), “Translation and content analysis of oral and written material”, in Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: Methodology, pp. 349-444, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA.

BRUDERL J., SCHUSSLER R. (1990), “Organizational mortality: The liabilities of newness and adolescence”, Administrative Science Quarterly, pp. 530-547.

BURKE A., GORG H., HANLEY A. (2007), “Market concentration, market dynamism and business survival”, RP 9/07, Cranfield University School of Management.

CAMPBELL J.T., CAMPBELL T.C., SIRMON D.G., BIERMAN L., TUGGLE C.S. (2012), “Shareholder influence over director nomination via proxy access: Implications for agency conflict and stakeholder value”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 33, n. 12, pp. 1431-1451.

CAMPBELL W.K., CAMPBELL S.M. (2009), “On the self-regulatory dynamics created by the peculiar benefits and costs of narcissism: A contextual reinforcement model and examination of leadership”, Self and Identity, vol. 8, n. 2-3, pp. 214-232.

CAMPBELL W.K., GOODIE A.S., FOSTER J.D. (2004), “Narcissism, confidence, and risk attitude”, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, vol. 17, n. 4, pp. 297-311.

CARPENTER M.A., GELETKANYCZ M.A., SANDERS W.G. (2004), “Upper Echelons Research Revisited: Antecedents, Elements, and Consequences of Top Management Team Composition”, Journal of Management, vol. 30, n. 6, pp. 749-778.

CASPI A., ROBERTS B.W., SHINER R.L. (2005), “Personality development: Stability and change”, Annu. Rev. Psychol., vol. 56, pp. 453-484.

CHAMORRO-PREMUZIC T. (2012), The dark side of charisma, Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2012/11/the-dark-side-of-charisma

CHATTERJEE A., HAMBRICK D.C. (2007), “It's All about Me: Narcissistic Chief Executive Officers and Their Effects on Company Strategy and Performance”, Admnistrative Science Quarterly, vol. 52, n. 3, pp. 351-386.

CHATTERJEE A., HAMBRICK D.C. (2011), “Executive personality, capability cues, and risk taking: How narcissistic CEOs react to their successes and stumbles”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 56, n. 2, pp. 202-237.

DAHLQVIST J., WIKLUND J. (2012), “Measuring the market newness of new ventures”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 27, n. 2, pp. 185-196.

DAMANPOUR F. (1991), “Organizational innovation: A meta-analysis of effects of determinants and moderators”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 34, n. 3, pp. 555-590.

DAWSON J.F. (2014), “Moderation in management research: What, why, when, and how”, Journal of Business and Psychology, vol. 29, n. 1, pp. 1-19.

DE VRIES H. (1994), “The leadership mystique”, The Academy of Management Executive, vol. 8, n. 3, pp. 73-89.

DESS G.G., BEARD D.W. (1984), “Dimensions of organizational task environments”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 29, n. 1, pp. 52-73.

DESS G.G., LUMPKIN G.T. (2005), “The role of entrepreneurial orientation in stimulating effective corporate entrepreneurship”, The Academy of Management Executive, vol. 19, n. 1, pp. 147-156.

DETIENNE D.R. (2010), “Entrepreneurial exit as a critical component of the entrepreneurial process: Theoretical development”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 25, n. 2, pp. 203-215.

DUNCAN R.B. (1972), “Characteristics of organizational environments and perceived environmental uncertainty”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 17, n. 3, pp. 313-327.

EISENHARDT K.M., MARTIN J.A. (2000), “Dynamic capabilities: what are they?”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, n. 10-11, pp. 1105-1121.

ELSBACH K.D., KRAMER R.M. (2003), “Assessing Creativity in Hollywood Pitch Meetings: Evidence for a Dual-Process Model of Creativity Judgments”, The Academy of Management Journal, vol. 46, n. 3, pp. 283-301.

EMMONS R.A. (1987), “Narcissism: theory and measurement”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 52, n. 1, pp. 11-17.

ENGELEN A., NEUMANN C., SCHMIDT S. (2016), “Should entrepreneurially oriented firms have narcissistic CEOs?”, Journal of Management, vol. 42, n. 3, pp. 698-721.

ENGELEN A., NEUMANN C., SCHWENS C. (2014), ““Of Course I Can”: The Effect of CEO Overconfidence on Entrepreneurially Oriented Firms”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.

ENSLEY M.D., PEARCE C.L., HMIELESKI K.M. (2006), “The moderating effect of environmental dynamism on the relationship between entrepreneur leadership behavior and new venture performance”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 21, n. 2, pp. 243-263.

FELDMAN S.P. (1989), “The broken wheel: The inseparability of autonomy and control in innovation within organizations”, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 26, n. 2, pp. 83-102.

FINKELSTEIN S. (2009), “Why is industry related to CEO compensation? A managerial discretion explanation”, Open Ethics Journal, vol. 3, n. 1, pp. 42-56.

FINKELSTEIN S., HAMBRICK D.C. (1990), “Top-management-team tenure and organizational outcomes: The moderating role of managerial discretion”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 35, n. 3, pp. 484-503.

FINKELSTEIN S., HAMBRICK D.C. (1996), Strategic leadership: top executives and their effects on organizations, West, Minneapolis-St. Paul.

FREUD S. (1914), On narcissism: an introduction. In Freud’s “On narcissicm: An introduction”, pp. 3-32, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

GATEWOOD E.J., SHAVER K.G., GARTNER W.B. (1995), “A longitudinal study of cognitive factors influencing start-up behaviors and success at venture creation”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 10, n. 5, pp. 371-391.

GENTILE B. (2013), Investingating alternative response sets with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory: Validation of a new Likert version, (Doctoral dissertation), University of Georgia,

GERSTNER W.C., KÖNIG A., ENDERS A., HAMBRICK D.C. (2013), “CEO narcissism, audience engagement, and organizational adoption of technological discontinuities”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 58, n. 2, pp. 257-291.

GONCALO F.K. (2010), “Are two narcissists better than one? The link between narcissism, perceived creativity, and creative performance”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 36, n. 11, pp. 1484-1495.

GRAHAM J.R., HARVEY C.R., PURI M. (2015), “Capital allocation and delegation of decision-making authority within firms”, Journal of Financial Economics, vol. 115, n. 3, pp. 449-470.

GRIJALVA E., HARMS P.D. (2014), “Narcissism: An integrative synthesis and dominance complementarity model”, The Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 28, n. 2, pp. 108-127.

GUPTA V., MACMILLAN I.C., SURIE G. (2004), “Entrepreneurial leadership: developing and measuring a cross-cultural construct”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 19, n. 2, pp. 241-260.

HAANS R.F., PIETERS C., HE Z.L. (2016), “Thinking about U: Theorizing and testing U‐and inverted U‐shaped relationships in strategy research”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 37, n. 7, pp. 1177-1195.

HAM C.C., SEYBERT N., WANG S. (2018), “Narcissism is a bad sign: CEO signature size, investment, and performance”, Review of Accounting Studies, vol. 23, n. 1, pp. 234-264.

HAMBRICK D.C. (2007), “Upper echelons theory: An update”, Academy of Management Review, vol. 32, n. 2, pp. 334-343.

HAMBRICK D.C., ABRAHAMSON E. (1995), “Assessing managerial discretion across industries: A multimethod approach”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 38, n. 5, pp. 1427-1441.

HAMBRICK D.C., FINKELSTEIN S. (1987), “Managerial discretion: A bridge between polar views of organizational outcomes”, Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 9, pp. 369-406.

HAMBRICK D.C., MASON P.A. (1984), “Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers”, Academy of Management Review, vol. 9, n. 2, pp. 193-206.

HE L. (2008), “Do founders matter? A study of executive compensation, governance structure and firm performance”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 23, n. 3, pp. 257-279.

HENDERSON A.D., MILLER D., HAMBRICK D.C. (2006), “How quickly do CEOs become obsolete? Industry dynamism, CEO tenure, and company performance”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 27, n. 5, pp. 447-460.

HILLER N.J., HAMBRICK D.C. (2005), “Conceptualizing executive hubris: the role of (hyper‐) core self‐evaluations in strategic decision‐making”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 26, n. 4, pp. 297-319.

HOYLE R.H. (2013), Handbook of personality and self-regulation, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, West Sussex.

HYYTINEN A., PAJARINEN M., ROUVINEN P. (2015), “Does innovativeness reduce startup survival rates?”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 30, n. 4, pp. 564-581.

JANSEN J.J., VAN DEN BOSCH F.A., VOLBERDA H.W. (2006), “Exploratory innovation, exploitative innovation, and performance: Effects of organizational antecedents and environmental moderators”, Management Science, vol. 52, n. 11, pp. 1661-1674.

JOHNSON S.L., MADOLE J.W., FREEMAN M.A. (2018), “Mania risk and entrepreneurship: Overlapping personality traits”, Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 32, n. 2, pp. 207-227.

JUDGE T.A., LEPINE J.A., RICH B.L. (2006), “Loving yourself abundantly: relationship of the narcissistic personality to self-and other perceptions of workplace deviance, leadership, and task and contextual performance”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 91, n. 4, pp. 762-776.

JUDGE T.A., PICCOLO R.F. (2004), “Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 89, n. 5, pp. 755-768.

JUNG D.I., CHOW C., WU A. (2003), “The role of transformational leadership in enhancing organizational innovation: Hypotheses and some preliminary findings”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 14, n. 4-5, pp. 525-544.

KASHMIRI S., NICOL C.D., ARORA S. (2017), “Me, myself, and I: influence of CEO narcissism on firms’ innovation strategy and the likelihood of product-harm crises”, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 45, n. 5, pp. 633-656.

KELLER R.T. (2006), “Transformational leadership, initiating structure, and substitutes for leadership: a longitudinal study of research and development project team performance”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 91, n. 1, pp. 202-210.

KICKUL J., GUNDRY L. (2002), “Prospecting for strategic advantage: the proactive entrepreneurial personality and small firm innovation”, Journal of Small Business Management, vol. 40, n. 2, pp. 85-97.

KLOTZ A.C., NEUBAUM D.O. (2016), “Research on the Dark Side of Personality Traits in Entrepreneurship: Observations from an Organizational Behavior Perspective”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, vol. 40, n. 1, pp. 7-17.

KRAICZY N.D., HACK A., KELLERMANNS F.W. (2015), “What makes a family firm innovative? CEO risk‐taking propensity and the organizational context of family firms”, Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 32, n. 3, pp. 334-348.

LI J., TANG Y. (2010), “CEO hubris and firm risk taking in China: The moderating role of managerial discretion”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 53, n. 1, pp. 45-68.

LIND J.T., MEHLUM H. (2010), “With or without U? the Appropriate Test for a U‐Shaped Relationship”, Oxford bulletin of economics and statistics, vol. 72, n. 1, pp. 109-118.

LOGAN J. (2009), “Dyslexic entrepreneurs: The incidence; their coping strategies and their business skills”, Dyslexia, vol. 15, n. 4, pp. 328-346.

MACCOBY M. (2000), “Narcissistic leaders: The incredible pros, the inevitable cons”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 78, n. 1, pp. 68-78.

MACCOBY M. (2003), The productive narcissist: The promise and peril of visionary leadership, Broadway Books, New York, NY.

MARCATI A., GUIDO G., PELUSO A.M. (2008), “The role of SME entrepreneurs’ innovativeness and personality in the adoption of innovations”, Research Policy, vol. 37, n. 9, pp. 1579-1590.

MATUSIK S.F., HILL C.W. (1998), “The utilization of contingent work, knowledge creation, and competitive advantage”, Academy of Management Review, vol. 23, n. 4, pp. 680-697.

MILLER C.C., BURKE L.M., GLICK W.H. (1998), “Cognitive diversity among upper‐echelon executives: implications for strategic decision processes”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 19, n. 1, pp. 39-58.

MILLER D. (1987), “The structural and environmental correlates of business strategy”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 8, n. 1, pp. 55-76.

MILLER D., SHAMSIE J. (2001), “Learning across the life cycle: Experimentation and performance among the Hollywood studio heads”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 22, n. 8, pp. 725-745.

MURA M., LETTIERI E., RADAELLI G., SPILLER N. (2013), “Promoting professionals' innovative behaviour through knowledge sharing: the moderating role of social capital”, Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 17, n. 4, pp. 527-544.

NAVIS C., OZBEK O.V. (2016), “The right people in the wrong places: The paradox of entrepreneurial entry and successful opportunity realization”, Academy of Management Review, vol. 41, n. 1, pp. 109-129.

NEVICKA B., DE HOOGH A.H., VAN VIANEN A.E., BEERSMA B., MCILWAIN D. (2011), “All I need is a stage to shine: Narcissists' leader emergence and performance”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 22, n. 5, pp. 910-925.

NUNNALLY J.C., BERNSTEIN I.H. (1994), Psychometric theory (3 ed.), McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

OBSCHONKA M., FISCH C. (2018), “Entrepreneurial personalities in political leadership”, Small Business Economics, vol. 50, n. 4, pp. 851-869.

PIISPANEN V.V., PALONIEMI K., SIMONEN J. (2017), “Entrepreneurs' business skills and growth orientation in business development”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, vol. 32, n. 4, pp. 515-536.

RESICK C.J., WHITMAN D.S., WEINGARDEN S.M., HILLER N.J. (2009), “The bright-side and the dark-side of CEO personality: examining core self-evaluations, narcissism, transformational leadership, and strategic influence”, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 94, n. 6, pp. 1365-1381.

ROSENTHAL S.A., PITTINSKY T.L. (2006), “Narcissistic leadership”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 17, n. 6, pp. 617-633.

SASABUCHI S. (1980), “A test of a multivariate normal mean with composite hypotheses determined by linear inequalities”, Biometrika, vol. 67, n. 2, pp. 429-439.

SHAN W., WALKER G., KOGUT B. (1994), “Interfirm cooperation and startup innovation in the biotechnology industry”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 15, n. 5, pp. 387-394.

SIMSEK Z., HEAVEY C., VEIGA J.J.F. (2010), “The impact of CEO core self‐evaluation on the firm's entrepreneurial orientation”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 31, n. 1, pp. 110-119.

SMITH M.B., WEBSTER B.D. (2018), “Narcissus the innovator? The relationship between grandiose narcissism, innovation, and adaptability”, Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 121, pp. 67-73.

SØRENSEN J.B., STUART T.E. (2000), “Aging, obsolescence, and organizational innovation”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 45, n. 1, pp. 81-112.

SOSIK J.J., GENTRY W.A., CHUN J.U. (2012), “The value of virtue in the upper echelons: A multisource examination of executive character strengths and performance”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 23, n. 3, pp. 367-382.

SOSIK J.J., KAHAI S.S., AVOLIO B.J. (1998), “Transformational leadership and dimensions of creativity: Motivating idea generation in computer-mediated groups”, Creativity Research Journal, vol. 11, n. 2, pp. 111-121.

TALAULICAR T., GRUNDEI J., WERDER A.V. (2005), “Strategic decision making in start-ups: the effect of top management team organization and processes on speed and comprehensiveness”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 20, n. 4, pp. 519-541.

VAN DIJK B., DEN HERTOG R., MENKVELD B., THURIK R. (1997), “Some new evidence on the determinants of large-and small-firm innovation”, Small Business Economics, vol. 9, n. 4, pp. 335-343.

VERGAUWE J., WILLE B., HOFMANS J., KAISER R.B., DE FRUYT F. (2018), “The Double-Edged Sword of Leader Charisma: Understanding the Curvilinear Relationship Between Charismatic Personality and Leader Effectiveness”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 114, n. 1, pp. 110-130.

VICKERY G., WURZBURG G. (1996), “Flexible firms, skills and employment”, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. The OECD Observer, vol. 202, pp. 17-19.

VOLMER J., SPURK D., NIESSEN C. (2012), “Leader-member exchange (LMX), job autonomy, and creative work involvement”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 23, n. 3, pp. 456-465.

WAELDER R. (1925), “The psychoses: their mechanisms and accessibility to influence”, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, vol. 6, pp. 259-281.

WALES W.J., GUPTA V.K., MOUSA F.T. (2011), “Empirical research on entrepreneurial orientation: An assessment and suggestions for future research”, International Small Business Journal, vol. 31, n. 4, pp. 357-383.

WALES W.J., PATEL P.C., LUMPKIN G.T. (2013), “In Pursuit of Greatness: CEO Narcissism, Entrepreneurial Orientation, and Firm Performance Variance”, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 50, n. 6, pp. 1041-1069.

WALLACE H.M., BAUMEISTER R.F. (2002), “The performance of narcissists rises and falls with perceived opportunity for glory”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 82, n. 5, pp. 819-834.

WALLACE J.C., LITTLE L.M., HILL A.D., RIDGE J.W. (2010), “CEO regulatory foci, environmental dynamism, and small firm performance”, Journal of Small Business Management, vol. 48, n. 4, pp. 580-604.

WANG G., HOLMES JR R.M., OH I.S., ZHU W. (2016), “Do CEOs matter to firm strategic actions and firm performance? A meta‐analytic investigation based on upper echelons theory”, Personnel Psychology, vol. 69, n. 4, pp. 775-862.

WANGROW D.B., SCHEPKER D.J., BARKER III V.L. (2015), “Managerial discretion: An empirical review and focus on future research directions”, Journal of Management, vol. 41, n. 1, pp. 99-135.

WASSERMAN N. (2003), “Founder-CEO succession and the paradox of entrepreneurial success”, Organization Science, vol. 14, n. 2, pp. 149-172.

WESTPHAL J.D., ZAJAC E.J. (1995), “Who shall govern? CEO/board power, demographic similarity, and new director selection”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 40, n. 1, pp. 60.

WIKLUND J., HATAK I., PATZELT H., SHEPHERD D.A. (2018), “Mental disorders in the entrepreneurship context: when being different can be an advantage”, Academy of Management Perspectives, vol. 32, n. 2, pp. 182-206.

WIKLUND J., YU W., TUCKER R., MARINO L.D. (2017), “ADHD, impulsivity and entrepreneurship”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 32, n. 6, pp. 627-656.

YAMAK S., NIELSEN S., ESCRIBÁ-ESTEVE A. (2014), “The role of external environment in upper echelons theory: A review of existing literature and future research directions”, Group and Organization Management, vol. 39, n. 1, pp. 69-109.

ZHANG H., OU A.Y., TSUI A.S., WANG H. (2017), “CEO humility, narcissism and firm innovation: A paradox perspective on CEO traits”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 28, pp. 585-604.

ZHU D.H., CHEN G. (2015), “CEO narcissism and the impact of prior board experience on corporate strategy”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 60, n. 1, pp. 31-65
Published
2020-03-26