Valutare e migliorare la comunicazione digitale per la sostenibilità: un modello operativo per i siti web. (Evaluating and improving digital communication for sustainability: an operating model for websites)
Purpose of the paper: The paper aims to assess and improve the requirements of communication for sustainability in the corporate website through an operational model.
Methodology: The model has been developed on the basis of indications deriving from the literature review both in the field of corporate sustainability and digital communication, and from the analysis of the website of the organizations classified by the Reputation Institute in the “Global CSR RepTrak 2015”. To test the feasibility of the model, a pilot study was carried out by evaluating the website of the organizations belonging to the banking and pharmaceutical industries.
Findings: The model is based on an architecture of factors: macro-item, item and micro-item. It enables to measure and assess the requirements of the communication for sustainability in the website, providing a score to the individual companies and industry-ranking. The allocation of the scores in the model includes potential penalties if greenwashing is detected. The model also allows to identify critical areas that need corrective actions.
Research limits: The model does not pretend to be exhaustive as it focuses on a limited number of factors. The simplification deriving from the use of dichotomous variables if it can appear a weakness on the one hand, it ensures the reduction of subjectivity and the ambiguity in the detection of the factors on the website, on the other hand.
Practical implications: The study provides managers and consultants of digital communication with an operational tool by which to obtain useful information to assess and improve communication for sustainability in the official website of profit and non profit organizations.
Originality of the paper: The model is the first proposal in the academic field of a tool which analyzes, assesses and improves the online communication for sustainability of websites.
ADAMS C.A., FROST G.R. (2006), “Accessibility and functionality of the corporate website: implications for sustainability reporting”, Business Strategy and the Environment, vol. 15, n. 4, pp. 275-287.
AMALADOSS M.X., MANOHAR H.L., JACOB F. (2011), “Document Communicating corporate governance through websites: A case study from India”, International Journal of Business Governance and Ethics, vol. 6, n. 4, pp. 311-339.
ARRIGO E. (2006), “Il codice di condotta: uno strumento di corporate governance”, Symphoya, Emerging Issues in Management, n. 1, pp. 109-125.
BASIL E., ERLANDSON J. (2008), “Corporate social responsibility website representation: A longitudinal study of internal and external self-presentations”, Journal of Marketing Communications, vol. 14, n. 2, pp. 125-137.
BIRTH G., ILLIA L., LURATI F., ZAMPARINI A. (2008), “Communicating CSR: The practice in the top 300 companies in Switzerland”, Corporate Communication: An International Journal, vol. 13, n. 2, pp. 182-196.
BOTTAZZINI P., GOTUZZO M. (2014), Design della mente: Infografica e data visualization, LSWR, Milano.
BRUSA G. (2008), La percezione del valore, Maggioli, Milano.
CAMPBELL D., CORNELIA BECK A. (2004), “Answering allegations: The use of the corporate website for restorative ethical and social disclosure”, Business Ethics: A European Review, vol. 13, n. 2/3, pp. 100-116.
CHEVALIER A., KICKA M. (2006), “Web designers and web users: Influence of the ergonomic quality of the web site on the information search”, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 64, n. 10, pp. 1031-1048.
CODA V. (1988), L’orientamento strategico dell’impresa, UTET, Torino.
CORBETTA P. (1999), Metodologia e tecniche della ricerca sociale, Il Mulino, Bologna.
CORNELISSEN J. (2011), Corporate communication. A guide to theory and practice, 3rd ed., Sage, London.
DADE A., HASSENZAHL D.M. (2013), “Communicating sustainability: A content analysis of website communications in the United States”, International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 14, n. 3, pp. 254-263.
DELMAS M.A., BURBANO V.C. (2011), “The drivers of greenwashing”, California Management Review, vol. 54, n. 1, pp. 64-87.
ECCLES R.G., KRZUS M.P., ROGERS J., SERAFEIM G. (2012), “The Need for Sector‐Specific Materiality and Sustainability Reporting Standards”, Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, vol. 24, n. 2, pp. 65-71.
EDWARDS A.R. (2005), The Sustainability Revolution, potrait of a paradigm shift, New Society Publichers, Gabriola Island.
ELKINGTON J. (1994), “Towards the sustainable corporation: Win-win-win business strategies for sustainable development”, California Management Review, vol. 36, n. 2, pp. 90-100.
FISHER R., OYELERE P., LASWAD F. (2004), “Corporate Reporting on the Internet: Audit Issues and Content Analysis of Practices”, Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 19, n. 2, pp. 412-439.
FOMBRUN C.J., VAN RIEL C.B.M. (2004), Fame & Fortune. How Successful Companies Build Winning Reputations, Prentice-Hall, Financial Times Upper, Suddle River.
FUCHS C. (2008), “The implications of new information and communication technologies for sustainability”, Environment, Development and Sustainability, vol. 10, n. 3, pp. 291-309.
FUKUKAWA K., MOON J. (2004), “A Japanese model of corporate social responsibility”, Journal of Corporate Citizenship, n. 16, pp. 45-59.
GALLASTEGUI I.G. (2002), “The use of eco-labels: a review of the literature”, European Environment, vol. 12, n. 6, pp. 316-331.
GAUDENZI B., CONFENTE I., CHRISTOPHER M. (2015), “Managing Reputational Risk: Insights from an European Survey”, Corporate reputation Review, vol. 18, n. 4, pp. 248-260.
GAULTIER-GAILLARD S., LOUISOT J.P. (2006), “Risks to reputation: a global approach”, The Geneva Paper s on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, vol. 31, n. 3, pp. 425-445.
GOLINELLI G.M. (2011), L’approccio Sistemico Vitale (ASV) al governo dell’impresa, Cedam, Padova.
GOLINELLI G.M., VOLPE L. (2012), Consonanza, valore, sostenibilità. Verso l’impresa sostenibile, Cedam, Padova.
GOMEZ L., CHALMETA R. (2011), “Corporate responsibility in US corporate websites: A pilot study”, Public Relations Review, vol. 37, n. 1, pp. 93-95.
GREENWOOD M. (2007), “Stakeholder Engagement: Beyond the Myth of Corporate Responsibility”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 74, n. 4, pp. 315-327.
IASEVOLI G., MASSI M. (2012), “The relationship between sustainable business management and competitiveness: research trends and challenge”, International Journal of Technology Management, vol. 58, n. 1/2, pp. 32-48.
ILLIA L., ROMENTI S., RODRÍGUEZ CÁNOVAS B., MURTARELLI G., CARROLL C.E. (2015), “Exploring Corporations’ Dialogue About CSR in the Digital Era”, Journal of Business Ethics, pp. 1-20, disponibile al link: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10551-015-2924-6.
KUCUK S.U., KRISHNAMURTHY S. (2007), “An Analysis of Consumer Power on the Internet”, Technovation, vol. 27, n. 1/2, pp. 47-56.
LADWEIN R. (2001), “Il web design e l’ergonomia dei siti di commercio elettronico”, Micro and Macro Marketing, vol. 10, n. 1, pp.51-64.
LUNDQUIST (2012), “CSR Online Awards”, disponibile al link http://www.lundquist.it/media/files/Lundquist_CSR_Online_Awards_Italy_2012_Executive_Summary.pdf.
LYON T.P., MONTGOMERY W. (2015), “The means and end of greenwash”, Organization and Environment, vol. 28, n. 2, pp. 223-249.
MARIMON F., ALONSO-ALMEIDA M.M., RODRIGUEZ M.P., CORTEZ ALEJANDRO K.A. (2012), “The world wide diffusion of the global reporting initiative: What is the point?”, Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 33, n. 3, pp. 132-144.
MÀRQUEZ A., FOMBRUN C.J. (2005), “Measuring corporate social responsibility”, Corporate Reputation Review, vol. 7, n. 4, pp. 304-308.
MICH L., FRANCH M., GAIO L. (2003), “Evaluating and designing web site quality”, Multi Media IEEE, vol. 10, n. 1, pp. 34-43.
MILES M.P., MUNILLA L.S., DARROCH J. (2006), “The role of strategic conversations with stakeholder s in the formation of corporate social responsibility strategy”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 69, n. 2, pp. 195-205.
MORENO A., CAPRIOTTI P. (2009), “Communicating CSR, citizenship and sustainability on the web”, Journal of Communication Management, vol. 13, n. 2, pp. 157-175.
NIELSEN J. (2000), Web usability, Apogeo Editore, Milano.
OECD (2007), Participative web and User-created Content, OECD, Paris.
PALMER J.W. (2002), “Web site usability, design, and performance metrics”, Information Systems Research, vol. 13, n. 2, pp. 151-167.
PARKER C.M., ZUTSHI A., FRAUNHOLZ B. (2010), “Online corporate social responsibility communication by Australian SMEs: a framework for website analysis”, Proceedings of the 23rd Bled eConference: eTrust: implications for the individual, enterprises and society, University of Maribor, Bled, Slovenia, pp. 509-523.
PERRINI F., TENCATI A. (2011), “La responsabilità sociale d’impresa: strategia per l’impresa relazionale e innovazione per la sostenibilità”, Sinergie, n. 77, pp. 23-43.
PIRES G.D., STANTON J., RITA P. (2006), “The internet, consumer empowerment and marketing strategies”, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 40, n. 9/10, pp. 936-949.
PORTER M.E., KRAMER M.R. (2006), “Strategy & society: the link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 84, n. 12, pp. 78-92.
PORTER M.E., KRAMER M.R. (2011), “Creating shared value. How to reinvent capitalism and unleash a wave of innovation and growth”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 89, n. 1/2, pp. 62-77.
REILLY A.H., HYNAN K.A. (2014), “Corporate communication, sustainability, and social media: It’s not easy (really) being green”, Business Horizons, vol. 57, n. 6, pp. 747-758.
REPUTATION INSTITUTE (2015), “Global CSR RepTrak 2015”, disponibile al link: https://www.reputationinstitute.com/CMSPages/GetAzureFile.aspx?path=~%5Cmedia%5Cmedia%5Cdocuments%5C2015-global-csr-reptrak-results.
ROWBOTTOM N., LYMER A. (2009), “Exploring the use of online corporate sustainability information”, Accounting Forum, vol. 33, n. 2, pp. 1-21.
SALVIONI D.M. (2004), Corporate Governance e sistemi di controllo della gestione aziendale, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
SANIL H.S., RAMAKRISHNAN S. (2015), “Communicating the corporate social responsibility on the company website: A study conducted on worldwide responsible accredited production certified apparel manufacturers in India”, International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, vol. 5, n. 5, pp. 52-56.
SAVITZ A., WEBER K. (2006), The Triple bottom Line, How Today’s best-run companies are achieving economic, social and environmental success, and how you can too, Jossey Bass, San Francisco.
SCOZZESE G. (2005), Il benchmarking, Armando Editore, Roma.
SEBASTIANI R. (2014), Corporate sustainability e competitività delle imprese. Lo sviluppo sostenibile come opportunità per un nuovo modo di fare impresa, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
SIANO A. (2014), Management della comunicazione per la sostenibilità, FrancoAngeli, Milano.
SIANO A., CONTE F., AMABILE S., VOLLERO A., PICIOCCHI P. (2016), “Communicating Sustainability: An Operational Model for Evaluating Corporate Websites”, Sustainability, vol. 8, n. 9, p. 950.
SIANO A., PICIOCCHI P., VOLLERO A., DELLA VOLPE M., PALAZZO M., CONTE F., DE LUCA D., AMABILE S. (2015), “Developing a Framework for Measuring Effectiveness of Sustainability communications through Corporate Websites”, in Ahram T., Karwowski W., Schmorrow D. (Eds.), Procedia Manufacturing - 6th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics (AHFE 2015) and the Affiliated Conferences (Las Vegas, USA), Elsevier, vol. 3, pp. 3615-3620, disponibile al link: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2351978915007386.
SINGER J.B. (2014), “User-generated visibility: Secondary gatekeeping in a shared media space”, New Media and Society, vol. 16, n. 1, pp. 55-73.
TAGESSON T., BLANK V., BROBERG P., COLLIN S.O. (2009), “What explains the extent and content of social and environmental disclosures on corporate websites: a study of social and environmental reporting in Swedish listed corporations”, Corporate Social responsibility and Environmental Management, vol. 16, n. 6, pp. 352-364.
TARQUINIO L., ROSSI A. (2014), “Customizzazione dei report di sostenibilità e stakeholder engagement. Il contributo del World Wide Web”, Impresa Progetto-Electronic Journal of Management, n. 1, pp. 1-28.
TERRA CHOICE (2010), The Sins of Greenwashing: home and family edition, Terra Choice Group, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
VAN DEN BOSCH A.L.M., DE JONG M.D.T., ELVING W.J.L. (2005), “How corporate visual identity supports reputation”, Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 10, n. 2, pp. 108-116.
WEBER O. (2005), “Sustainability benchmarking of European banks and financial service organizations”, Corporate Social responsibility and Environmental Management, vol. 12, n. 2, pp. 73-87.