Creating competitive advantage through knowledge sharing in the digital economy

  • Angelo Presenza
  • Murat Yucelen
  • Serkan Gurson
  • Angelo Camillo
Keywords: knowledge sharing; ICT; quantitative analysis; theory of reasoned action

Abstract

Purpose of the paper: Starting from an extensive literature review on Knowledge Sharing (KS), this paper aims to identify factors influencing KS and to identify the impact of these factors on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).

Methodology: Using the Theory of Reasoned Action, we collect data by applying snowball methodology. We then analyze three major determinants of individuals’ KS attitude - expected rewards, expected associations, and expected contribution - and consequently attitude as a determinant of their intention to share knowledge. In turn, KS intention is suggested as an immediate predictor of KS behavior.

Findings: Results suggest that KS beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behavior impact on the individual use of ICT, whether in its instant or constant form. Results also confirmed that ICT is involved in the whole KS process and represents a critical component.

Research limits: The most evident limit is related to the limited generalizability of the sample investigated from which it follows that our conclusions are only tentative. We focus (the second limit) only on the salient beliefs which affect the KS attitude, because we assume that the KS behavior is motivated and executed mainly at the individual level.

Practical implications: Findings highlight how important is for organizations to provide constant ICT tools to direct its members to develop attitude, intention and behavior for enacting KS. Within this frame, they would have the ability to monitor the role of each determinant in knowledge accumulation among their members.

Originality of the paper: This paper attempts to confirm ICT as the critical component of entire KS process. In this sense, it analyzes the impact of expected rewards, expected associations, and expected contribution on the choice of ICT. 

References

AIKEN L.R. (2000), Psychological Testing and Assessment, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA.

AJZEN I. (1991), “The theory of planned behavior”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, vol. 50, n. 2, pp. 179-211.

AJZEN I. (2002), “Constructing a TPB questionnaire: conceptual and methodological considerations”, http://people.umass.edu/aizen/pdf/tpb.measurement.pdf.

AJZEN I. (2012), “The Theory of Planned Behavior”, in Lange P.A.M., Kruglanski A.W., Higgins E.T. (Edited by), Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology vol. 1, Sage London, pp. 438-459.

AJZEN I., FISHBEIN M. (1980), Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

ALAVI M., LEIDNER D.E. (2001), “Knowledge Management and knowledge management systems: Conceptual foundations and research issues”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 25, n. 1, pp. 107-136.

ALTHEIDE D.L. (1994), “An ecology of communication: Toward a mapping of the effective environment”, Sociological Quarterly, vol. 35, n. 4, pp. 665-683.

ANTAL A.B., RICHEBÉ N. (2009), “A passion for giving, a passion for sharing: understanding knowledge sharing as gift exchange in academia”, Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 18, n. 1, pp. 87-95.

BECKER F. (2007), “Organizations Ecology and Knowledge Networks”, California Management Review, vol. 49, n. 2, pp. 42-61.

BHUTTA C.B. (2012), “Not by the Book: Facebook as a Sampling Frame”, Sociological Methods and Research, vol. 41, n. 1, pp. 57-88.

BOCK G., ZMUD RW, KIM YG, LEE JN (2005), “Behavioral Intention Formation in Knowledge Sharing: Examining the Roles of Extrinsic Motivators, Social-Psychological Forces, and Organizational Climate”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 29, n. 1, pp. 87-111.

BOCK G.W., KIM Y.G. (2002), “Breaking the myths of rewards: an exploratory study of attitudes about knowledge sharing”, Information Resources Management Journal, vol. 15, n. 2, pp. 14-21.

BOLISANI E., SCARSO E. (1999), “Information technology management: a knowledge-based perspective”, Technovation, vol. 19, n. 4, pp. 209-217.

BRINKLEY I., FAUTH R., MAHDON M., THEODOROPOULOU S. (2009) Knowledge Workers and Knowledge Work; A Knowledge Economy Programme Report. The Work Foundation. The Work Foundation 21 Palmer Street London SW1H 0AD. Accessed October 10, 2016 at http://www.theworkfoundation.com/Assets/Docs/Knowledge%20Workers-March%202009.pdf

CABRERA A., COLLINS W.C., SALGADO J.F. (2006), “Determinants of individual engagement in knowledge sharing”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 17, n. 2, pp. 245-264.

CHEN C.J., HUNG S.W. (2010), “To give or to receive? Factors influencing members’ knowledge sharing and community promotion in professional virtual communities”, Information and Management, vol. 47, n. 4, pp. 226-236.

CHOI S.Y., LEE H., YOO Y. (2010), “The impact of information technology and transactive memory systems on knowledge sharing, application, and team performance: A field study”, MIS Quarterly, vol. 34, n. 4, pp. 855-870.

CONSTANT D., KIESLER S., SPROULL L. (1994). “What’s mine is ours, or is it? A study of attitude about information sharing”, Information Systems Research, vol. 5, n. 4, pp. 400-422.

CUMMINGS J.N. (2004), “Work groups, structural diversity, and knowledge sharing in a global organization”, Management Science, vol. 50, n. 3, pp. 352-364.

DAFT R., LEWIN A. (1993), “Where Are the Theories of the ‘New’ Organizational Forms?”, Organization Science, vol. 4, n. 1, pp. I-IV.

DAVENPORT T.H. (1997), “Ten principles of knowledge management and four case studies”, Knowledge and Process Management, vol. 4, n. 3, pp. 187-208.

DAVENPORT T.H., PRUSAK L. (1998), Working knowledge: How organizations manage what they know, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.

DECI E.L., RYAN R.M. (1980), “The empirical exploration of intrinsic motivational processes”, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 13, n. 2, pp. 39-80.

DIMAGGIO P., HARGITTAI E., NEUMAN W.R., ROBINSON J.P. (2001), “Social implications of the Internet”, Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 27, n. 1, pp. 307-336.

DING Z., NG F. (2009), “Personal construct-based factors affecting interpersonal trust in a project design team”, Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 136, n. 2, pp. 227-234.

DU R., AI S., REN Y. (2007), “Relationship between knowledge sharing and performance: A survey in Xi’an, China”, Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 32, n. 1, pp. 38-46.

FISHBEIN M., AJZEN I. (1975), Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

GIBBERT M., KRAUSE H. (2002), “Practice exchange in a best practice marketplace”, in Davenport T.H, Probst G.J.B., Knowledge management case book: Siemen Best Practices, Publicis Corporate Publishing, Erlangen, Germany.

GOLDENBERG J., SANGMAN H., LEHMANN D.R., HONG J.W. (2009), “The Role of Hubs in the Adoption Processes”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 73, n. 2, pp. 1-13.

GRANT R.M. (1991), “The Resource-Based Theory of Competitive Advantage: Implications for Strategy Formulation”, California Management Review, vol. 33, n. 3, pp. 119-135.

GRANT R.M. (1996), “Toward a Knowledge-Based Theory of the Firm”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 17, n. Winter special issue, pp. 109-122.

GUPTA B., JOSHI S. (2012), “The Effect of Expected Benefit and Perceived Cost on Employees’ Knowledge Sharing Behavior: A Study of IT Employees in India”, Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, vol. 3, n. 1, pp. 8-19.

HANSEN S., AVITAL M. (2005), “Share and share alike: The social and technological influences on knowledge sharing behavior”, Sprouts: Working papers on information systems, vol. 5, n. 13, pp. 1-19.

HOMAN A.C., HOLLENBECK J.R., HUMPHREY S.E., VAN KNIPPENBERG D., ILGEN D.R., VAN KLEEF G.A. (2008), “Facing differences with an open mind: openness to experience, salience of intra-group differences, and performance of diverse work groups”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 58, n. 6, pp. 1204-1222.

JARVENPAA S.L., STAPLES D.S. (2000), “The use of collaborative electronic media for information sharing: an exploratory study of determinants”, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, vol. 9, n. 1, pp. 129-154.

KELLEY H.H., THIBAUT J.W. (1978), Interpersonal relations: A theory of interdependence, Wiley-Interscience, New York.

LIN J. (2007), “An exploration of the principles underlying redundancy-based factoid question answering”, ACM Transactions on Information Systems, vol. 25, n. 2, pp. 1-6.

MOORE G.C., BENBASAT I. (1991), “Development of an instrument to measure the perceptions of adopting an information technology innovation”, Information Systems Research, vol. 2, n. 3, pp. 192-222.

NONAKA I. (1994), “A Dynamic Theory of Organizational Knowledge Creation”, Organization Science, vol. 5, n. 1, pp. 14-37.

O’DELL C., GRAYSON C.J. (1998), “If only we knew what we know: identification and transfer of internal best practice”, California Management Review, vol. 40, n. 3, pp. 154-74.

OSTERLOH M., FREY B.S. (2000), “Motivation, Knowledge Transfer, and Organizational Form”, Organization Science, vol. 11, n. 5, pp. 538-550.

PIGG K.E., CRANK L.D. (2004), “Building community social capital: The potential and promise of information and communications technologies”, The Journal of Community Informatics, vol. 1, n. 1, pp. 58-73.

RABER D., BUDD J.M. (2003), “Information as sign: semiotics and information science”, Journal of Documentation, vol. 59, n. 5, pp. 507-522.

RUGGLES R. (1998), “The state of the notion: Knowledge Management in practice”, California Management Review, vol. 40, n. 3, pp. 80-89.

SELLTIZ C., JAHODA M., DEUTSCH M., COOK S.W. (1959), Research methods in social relations, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York.

SPENDER J.C. (1996), “Making Knowledge the Basis of A Dynamic Theory of the Firm”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 17, n. S2, pp. 45-62.

TARDIVO G. (2008), “L’evoluzione degli studi sul Knowledge Management”, Sinergie, n. 76, pp. 21-42.

TEECE D.J. (2000), “Strategies for Managing Knowledge Assets: The Role of Firm Structure and Industrial Context”, Long Range Planning, vol. 33, n. 1, pp. 35-54.

VAN DEN HOOFF B., DE LEEUW VAN WEENEN F. (2004), “Committed to Share: Commitment and CMC Use as Antecedents of Knowledge Sharing”, Knowledge and Process Management, vol. 11, n. 1, pp. 13-24.

VICARI S. (2008), “Conoscenza e impresa”, Sinergie, n. 76, pp. 43-66.

WASKO M., FARAJ S. (2000), “It Is What One Does: Why People Participate and Help Others in Electronic Communities of Practice”, Journal of Strategic Information Systems, vol. 9, n. 2-3, pp. 155-173.

WRENN B., STEVENS R.E., LOUDON D.L. (2007), Marketing research. Text and cases, Haworth Press, New York.

YUAN Y.C., ZHAO X., LIAO Q., CHI C. (2013), “The use of different information and communication technologies to support knowledge sharing in organizations: From e‐mail to micro‐blogging”, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 64, n. 8, pp. 1659-1670.

Published
2017-08-31