Il ruolo delle risorse intangibili nella letteratura manageriale. Principali linee di ricerca e analisi future (The role of intangible resources in managerial literature. Main lines of research and future analysis)
Purpose of the paper: This research aims to realize a literature review about intangible resources in managerial studies, in order to conceive an interpretive model.
Methodology: Narrative review.
Findings: Results show that a unique definition of intangible resources does not exist. In addition, findings underline the most used theories, the main streams of research and suggest avenues for future studies.
Limitations: Limitations depends on databases used.
Implications: Implications are twofold. We firstly contribute to the literature offering new research streams, and secondly the research helps practitioners identifying intangible resources that represent the core to pursue the competitive advantage.
Originality of the paper: This paper offers an in depth analysis of the managerial literature on intangible resources and draws the state of the art suggesting future perspectives of analysis. It covers a very large time span (1990-2017), it concentrates on contributions that have used “intangibles resources” as an “umbrella concept”, and it focus on the whole of managerial literature (i.e. not only financial or accounting).
AMBROSINI V., BOWMAN C. (2001), “Tacit knowledge: Some suggestions for operationalization”, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 38, n. 6, pp. 811-829.
ANDERSEN O., KHEAM L.S. (1998), “Resource-based theory and international growth strategies: an exploratory study”, International Business Review, vol. 7, n. 2, pp. 163-184.
ANDERSON B.S., ESHIMA Y. (2013), “The influence of firm age and intangible resources on the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and firm growth among Japanese SMEs”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 28, n. 3, pp. 413-429.
ARAGÓN‐SÁNCHEZ A., SÁNCHEZ‐MARÍN G. (2005), “Strategic orientation, management characteristics, and performance: A study of Spanish SMEs”, Journal of Small Business Management, vol. 43, n. 3, pp. 287-308.
AREVALO J.A., ARAVIND D., AYUSO S., ROCA M. (2013), “The Global Compact: An analysis of the motivations of adoption in the Spanish context”, Business Ethics: A European Review, vol. 22, n. 1, pp. 1-15.
ARTHUR W.B. (1994), Increasing returns and path dependence in the economy, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
ARVIDSSON A., GIORDANO A. (2013), Societing Reloaded: pubblici produttivi e innovazione sociale, EGEA, Milano.
ATHERTON A. (2013), “Organisational ‘know-where’and ‘know-when’: re-framing configurations and distributions of knowledge in organisations”, Knowledge Management Research and Practice, vol. 11, n. 4, pp. 410-421.
BARNEY J.B. (1991), “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage”, Journal of Management, vol. 17, n. 1, pp. 99-120.
BARNEY J.B. (1997), Gaining and sustaining competitive advantage, Addison-Wesley Reading, MA Massachusetts.
BARNEY J.B. (2001), “Is the resource-based “view” a useful perspective for strategic management research? Yes”, Academy of Management Review, vol. 26, n. 1, pp. 41-56.
BAUMEISTER R.F., LEARY M.R. (1997), “Writing narrative literature reviews”, Review of General Psychology, vol. 1, n. 3, pp. 311-320.
BECKER G.S. (1994), Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, The University Chicago Press, Chigago.
BOEHE D.M. (2016), “The internationalization of service firms from emerging economies: An internalization perspective”, Long Range Planning, vol. 49, n. 5, pp. 559-569.
BONTIS N., BART C., WAKEFIELD P., KRISTANDL G., BONTIS N. (2007), “Constructing a definition for intangibles using the Resource Based View of the firm”, Management Decision, vol. 45, n. 9, pp. 1510-1524.
BONTIS N., DRAGONETTI N.C., JACOBSEN K., ROOS G. (1999), “The knowledge toolbox: A review of the tools available to measure and manage intangible resources”, European Management Journal, vol. 17, n. 4, pp. 391-402.
BRANCO M.C., RODRIGUES L.L. (2006), “Corporate social responsibility and resource-based perspectives”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 69, n. 2, pp. 111-132.
BRONDONI S.M. (2002), “Comunicazione, performance e sistema delle risorse immateriali d’impresa”, Sinergie, n. 59, pp. 41-52.
CAMELO-ORDAZ C., MARTÍN-ALCÁZAR F., VALLE-CABRERA R. (2003), “Intangible resources and strategic orientation of companies: An analysis in the Spanish context”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 56, n. 2, pp. 95-103.
CAMISÓN C. (2004), “Shared, competitive, and comparative advantages: a competence-based view of industrial-district competitiveness”, Environment and Planning A, vol. 36, n. 12, pp. 2227-2256.
CAMISÓN C., VILLAR A. (2009), “Capabilities and propensity for cooperative internationalization”, International Marketing Review, vol. 26, n. 2, pp. 124-150.
CAÑIBANO L., GARCIA-AYUSO M., SANCHEZ P. (2000), “Accounting for intangibles: a literature review”, Journal of Accounting Literature, vol. 19, pp. 102-130.
CARMELI A. (2004), “Assessing core intangible resources”, European Management Journal, vol. 22, n. 1, pp. 110-122.
CARMELI A., AZEROUAL B. (2009), “How Relational Capital and Knowledge Combination Capability Enhance the Performance of Work Units in a High Technology Industry”, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, vol. 3, n. 1, pp. 85-103.
CATALFO P., WULF I. (2016), “Intangibles disclosure in Management Commentary regulation in Germany and Italy”, Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 17, n. 1, pp. 103-119.
ČATER T., ČATER B. (2009), “(In)tangible resources as antecedents of a company’s competitive advantage and performance”, Journal for East European Management Studies, vol. 14, n. 2, pp. 186-209.
CEPEDA G., VERA D. (2007), “Dynamic Capabilities and operational capabilities: A knowledge management perspective”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 60, n. 5, pp. 426-437.
COOPER, H. (1998), Synthesizing Research: A Guide for Literature reviews, Thousand Oaks, CA., Sage Publications.
CROOK T.R., KETCHEN D.J., COMBS J.G., TODD S.Y. (2008), “Strategic resources and performance: a meta‐analysis”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 29, n. 11, pp. 1141-1154.
CRUZ-ROS S. (2009), “Multi-item models for evaluating managerial and organizational resources in service firms”, Service Business, vol. 3, n. 3, pp. 229-257.
D’AVENI R.A., GUNTHER R.E. (1995), Hypercompetitive rivalries: Competing in highly dynamic environments, Free Press, New York
DAVID P.A. (1994), “Why are institutions the ‘carriers of history’?: Path dependence and the evolution of conventions, organizations and institutions”, Structural change and economic dynamics, vol. 5, n. 2, pp. 205-220.
DAVID P.A. (2001), “Path dependence, its critics and the quest for ‘historical economics’”, in Garrouste P., Ioannides S. (Eds.), Evolution and path dependence in economic ideas: Past and present, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.
DEL CANTO J.G., GONZALEZ I.S. (1999), “A resource-based analysis of the factors determining a firm’s R&D activities”, Research Policy, vol. 28, n. 8, pp. 891-905.
DENICOLAI S., RAMIREZ M., TIDD J. (2014), “Creating and capturing value from external knowledge: the moderating role of knowledge intensity”, R&D Management, vol. 44, n. 3, pp. 248-264.
DÍAZ-FERNÁNDEZ M.C., GONZÁLEZ-RODRÍGUEZ M.R., SIMONETTI B. (2015), “Top management team’s intellectual capital and firm performance”, European Management Journal, vol. 33, n. 5, pp. 322-331.
DIEFENBACH, T. (2006), “Intangible resources: a categorial system of knowledge and other intangible assets”, Journal of Intellectual capital, vol. 7, n. 3, pp. 406-420.
DIXON-WOODS M., BONAS S., BOOTH A., JONES D.R., MILLER T., SUTTON A.J., SHAW R.L., SMITH J.A., YOUNG B. (2006), “How can systematic review s incorporate qualitative research? A critical perspective”, Qualitative Research, vol. 6, n. 1, pp. 27-44.
DOMINICI P. (2014), Dentro la società interconnessa, Franco Angeli, Milano.
DONNELLY P. (2009), “Focusing on Process and History: Path dependence”, in Hogan J., Dolan P., Donnelly P. (Eds.), Approaches to Qualitative Research: Theory and Its Practical Application, O.T. Press, Cork, IE.
DORSCH M.J., CARLSON L. (1996), “A transaction approach to understanding and managing customer equity”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 35, n. 3, pp. 253-264.
ELANGO B., PATTNAIK C. (2013), “Response strategies of local firms to import competition in emerging markets”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 66, n. 12, pp. 2460-2465.
FERNÁNDEZ-OLMOS M., DÍEZ-VIAL I. (2013), “Effect of firm’s resources on international diversification: An application in the Iberian Ham industry”, European Management Journal, vol. 31, n. 2, pp. 196-208.
FERNÁNDEZ E., MONTES J.M., VÁZQUEZ C.J. (2000), “Typology and strategic analysis of intangible resources: a resource-based approach”, Technovation, vol. 20, n. 2, pp. 81-92.
GALBREATH, J. (2005), “Which resources matter the most to firm success? An exploratory study of resource-based theory”, Technovation, vol. 25, n. 9, pp. 979-987.
GARCÍA-MERINO J.D., ARREGUI-AYASTUY G., RODRÍGUEZ-CASTELLANOS A., GARCÍA-ZAMBRANO L. (2010), “The intangibles’ mindset of CFOs’ and corporate performance”, Knowledge Management Research and Practice, vol. 8, n. 4, pp. 340-350.
GARDNER T.M. (2005), “Interfirm competition for human resources: Evidence from the software industry”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 48, n. 2, pp. 237-256.
GÓMEZ J., VARGAS P. (2012), “Intangible resources and technology adoption in manufacturing firms”, Research Policy, vol. 41, n. 9, pp. 1607-1619.
GOTTFREDSON M., ASPINALL K. (2005), “Innovation versus complexity: What is too much of a good thing?”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 83, n. 11, pp. 62-71.
GRANT R.M. (1996), “Prospering in dynamically-competitive environments: Organizational capability as knowledge integration”, Organization Science, vol. 7, n. 4, pp. 375-387.
GRAY D., ROOS G., RASTAS T. (2004), “What intangible resources do companies value, measure, and report? A synthesis of UK and Finnish research”, International Journal of Learning and Intellectual capital, vol. 1, n. 3, pp. 242-261.
GU Q., LU X. (2014), “Unraveling the mechanisms of reputation and alliance formation: A study of venture capital syndication in China”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 35, n. 5, pp. 739-750.
GUBBI S.R., AULAKH P.S., RAY S., SARKAR M., CHITTOOR R. (2010), “Do international acquisitions by emerging-economy firms create shareholder value? The case of Indian firms”, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 41, n. 3, pp. 397-418.
HAANES K., FJELDSTAD Ø. (2000), “Linking intangible resources and competition”, European Management Journal, vol. 18, n. 1, pp. 52-62.
HALL R. (1992), “The strategic analysis of intangible resources”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 13, n. 2, pp. 135-144.
HALL R. (1993), “A framework linking intangible resources and capabiliites to sustainable competitive advantage”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 14, n. 8, pp. 607-618.
HARRIS J. (2005), “Emerging third world powers: China, India and Brazil”, Race and Class, vol. 46, n. 3, pp. 7-27.
HARVEY M.G., LUSCH R.F. (1995), “Expanding the nature and scope of due diligence”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 10, n. 1, pp. 5-21.
HAYTON, J. C. (2005), “Competing in the new economy: the effect of intellectual capital on corporate entrepreneurship in high‐technology new ventures”, R&D Management, vol. 35, n. 2, pp. 137-155.
HEJAZI R., GHANBARI M., ALIPOUR M. (2016), “Intellectual, Human and Structural Capital Effects on Firm Performance as Measured by Tobin’s Q”, Knowledge and Process Management, vol. 23, n. 4, pp. 259-273.
HERVAS-OLIVER J.L., RIPOLL-SEMPERE F., MOLL C.B. (2016), “Does management innovation pay-off in SMEs? Empirical evidence for Spanish SMEs”, Small Business Economics, vol. 47, n. 2, pp. 507-533.
HEWITT-DUNDAS N. (2006), “Resource and capability constraints to innovation in small and large plants”, Small Business Economics, vol. 26, n. 3, pp. 257-277.
HMIELESKI K.M., CARR J.C., BARON R.A. (2015), “Integrating discovery and creation perspectives of entrepreneurial action: the relative roles of founding CEO human capital, social capital, and psychological capital in contexts of risk versus uncertainty”, Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, vol. 9, n. 4, pp. 289-312.
JIANG C.X., YANG Q., LI S., WANG Y. (2011), “The moderating effect of foreign direct investment intensity on local firms’ intangible resources investment and performance implications: A case from China”, Journal of International Management, vol. 17, n. 4, pp. 291-302.
JIANG X., JIANG F., CAI X., LIU H. (2015), “How does trust affect alliance performance? The mediating role of resource sharing”, Industrial Marketing Management, vol. 45, pp. 128-138.
JONES R.W., KIERZKOWSKI H. (2003), “A Framework For Fragmentation”, in Fragmentation: new production patterns in the world economy, Arndt K. S.W., Oxford H., Oxford University Press.
KAUFMANN L., SCHNEIDER Y. (2004), “Intangibles: a synthesis of current research”, Journal of Intellectual capital, vol. 5, n. 3, pp. 366-388.
KEMMERER B., WALTER J., KELLERMANNS F.W., NARAYANAN V. (2012), “A judgment-analysis perspective on entrepreneurs’ resource evaluations”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 65, n. 8, pp. 1102-1108.
KIANTO A., ANDREEVA T., PAVLOV Y. (2013), “The impact of intellectual capital management on company competitiveness and financial performance”, Knowledge Management Research and Practice, vol. 11, n. 2, pp. 112-122.
KOR Y.Y., LEBLEBICI H. (2005), “How do interdependencies among human‐capital deployment, development, and diversification strategies affect firms’ financial performance?”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 26, n. 10, pp. 967-985.
KUIVALAINEN O., SUNDQVIST S., SAARENKETO S., MCNAUGHTON R.B., D’ANGELO A., MAJOCCHI A., ZUCCHELLA A., BUCK T. (2013), “Geographical pathways for SME internationalization: insights from an Italian sample”, International Marketing Review, vol. 30, n. 2, pp. 80-105.
LAI Y.L., LIN F.J., LIN Y.H. (2015), “Factors affecting firm’s R&D investment decisions”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 68, n. 4, pp. 840-844.
LI J.T., TANG Y. (2010), “CEO hubris and firm risk taking in China: The moderating role of managerial discretion”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 53, n. 1, pp. 45-68.
MACINNIS D.J. (2011), “A framework for conceptual contributions in marketing”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 75, n. 4, pp. 136-154.
MARCUS A.A., ANDERSON M.H. (2006), “A General Dynamic Capability: Does it Propagate Business and Social Competencies in the Retail Food Industry?”, Journal of Management Studies, vol. 43, n. 1, pp. 19-46.
MARTÍN-DE-CASTRO G., DELGADO-VERDE M., LÓPEZ-SÁEZ P., NAVAS-LÓPEZ J.E. (2011), “Towards ‘an intellectual capital-based view of the firm’: origins and nature”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 98, n. 4, pp. 649-662.
MATHWICK C., WIERTZ C., DE RUYTER K. (2008), “Social capital production in a virtual P3 community”, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 34, n. 6, pp. 832-849.
MCMILLAN G., DEEDS L. (1998), “The role of reputation in the recruitment of scientists”, R&D Management, vol. 28, n. 4, pp. 299-304.
MEHO L.I., YANG K. (2007), “Impact of data sources on citation counts and rankings of LIS faculty: Web of Science versus Scopus and Google Scholar”, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol. 58, n. 13, pp. 2105-2125.
MELVILLE N., KRAEMER K., GURBAXANI V. (2004), “Review : Information technology and organizational performance: An integrative model of IT business value”, MIS quarterly, vol. 28, n. 2, pp. 283-322.
MÉNDEZ-DURÓN R. (2013), “Do the allocation and quality of intellectual assets affect the reputation of open source software projects?”, Information and Management, vol. 50, n. 7, pp. 357-368.
MILLER D. (2003), “An asymmetry‐based view of advantage: towards an attainable sustainability”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 24, n. 10, pp. 961-976.
MILLER D., SHAMSIE J. (1996), “The resource-based view of the firm in two environments: The Hollywood film studios from 1936 to 1965”, Academy of management journal, vol. 39, n. 3, pp. 519-543.
MOLLOY J.C., CHADWICK C., PLOYHART R.E., GOLDEN S.J. (2011), “Making Intangibles “Tangible” in Tests of Resource-Based Theory A Multidisciplinary Construct Validation Approach”, Journal of Management, vol. 37, n. 5, pp. 1496-1518.
MONTRESOR S., VEZZANI A. (2016), “Intangible investments and innovation propensity: Evidence from the Innobarometer 2013”, Industry and Innovation, vol. 23, n. 4, pp. 331-352.
MOUSTAGHFIR K. (2009), “How knowledge assets lead to a sustainable competitive advantage: are organizational capabilities a missing link?”, Knowledge Management Research and Practice, vol. 7, n. 4, pp. 339-355.
MUSIOLIK J., MARKARD J., HEKKERT M. (2012), “Networks and network resources in technological innovation systems: Towards a conceptual framework for system building”, Technological Forecasting and Social Change, vol. 79, n. 6, pp. 1032-1048.
NACHUM L., ZAHEER S. (2005), “The persistence of distance? The impact of technology on MNE motivations for foreign investment”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 26, n. 8, pp. 747-767.
NALDI L., DAVIDSSON P. (2014), “Entrepreneurial growth: The role of international knowledge acquisition as moderated by firm age”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 29, n. 5, pp. 687-703.
NAVARRO S., ANDREU L., CERVERA A. (2014), “Value co-creation among hotels and disabled customers: An exploratory study”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 67, n. 5, pp. 813-818.
NISAR T., MARTIN R., MAY SEITANIDI M. (2007), “Intangible economy: How can investors deliver change in businesses? Lessons from nonprofit-business partnerships”, Management Decision, vol. 45, n. 5, pp. 853-865.
NONAKA I., TOYAMA R., KONNO N. (2000), “SECI, Ba and leadership: a unified model of dynamic knowledge creation”, Long Range Planning, vol. 33, n. 1, pp. 5-34.
NORMAN P.M., BUTLER F.C., RANFT A.L. (2013), “Resources Matter Examining the Effects of Resources on the State of Firms Following Downsizing”, Journal of Management, vol. 39, n. 7, pp. 2009-2038.
OBLOJ T., CAPRON L. (2011), “Role of resource gap and value appropriation: Effect of reputation gap on price premium in online auctions”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 32, n. 4, pp. 447-456.
PADGETT R.C., GALAN J.I. (2010), “The effect of R&D intensity on corporate social responsibility”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 93, n. 3, pp. 407-418.
PARADKAR A., KNIGHT J., HANSEN P. (2015), “Innovation in start-ups: Ideas filling the void or ideas devoid of resources and capabilities?”, Technovation, vol. 41-42, n. July-August, pp. 1-10.
PENROSE E. (1959), The theory of the growth of the firm, NY Wiley, New York.
PETTICREW M., ROBERTS H. (2008), Systematic review s in the social sciences: A practical guide, NY, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
PIKE S., ROOS G., MARR B. (2005), “Strategic management of intangible assets and value drivers in R&D organizations”, R&D Management, vol. 35, n. 2, pp. 111-124.
POISSON-DE HARO S., MONTPETIT D. (2012), “Surviving in Times of Turmoil: Adaptation of the Théâtre Les Deux Mondes Business Model”, International Journal of Arts Management, vol. 14, n. 3, pp. 16-31.
PORTER M.E. (1985), Competitive advantage; creating and sustaining superior performance, The Free Press, New York, NY.
PORTER M.E. (1991), “Towards a dynamic theory of strategy”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 12, n. S2, pp. 95-117.
QUINTILIANI A. (2016), Internal rating systems e soft information: Il ruolo degli intangibili e del contesto territoriale nella valutazione del merito creditizio delle PMI, Franco Angeli, Milano.
RAITHEL S., SCHWAIGER M. (2015), “The effects of corporate reputation perceptions of the general public on shareholder value”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 36, n. 6, pp. 945-956.
RAMALHO W., RESENDE L.M. (2016), “Reputation in public transport service”, Revista Gestão and Tecnologia, vol. 16, n. 2, pp. 218-237.
RANGONE A. (1999), “A resource-based approach to strategy analysis in small-medium sized enterprises”, Small Business Economics, vol. 12, n. 3, pp. 233-248.
RAO H. (1994), “The social construction of reputation: Certification contests, legitimation, and the survival of organizations in the American automobile industry: 1895-1912”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 15, n. S1, pp. 29-44.
RICHEY R.G., TOKMAN M., SKINNER L.R. (2008), “Exploring collaborative technology utilization in retailer-supplier performance”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 61, n. 8, pp. 842-849.
RIFKIN J. (2011), The third industrial revolution: how lateral power is transforming energy, the economy, and the world, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
ROBERTS P.W., DOWLING G.R. (2002), “Corporate reputation and sustained superior financial performance”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 23, n. 12, pp. 1077-1093.
RODRIGUEZ J.L., RODRÍGUEZ R.M.G. (2005), “Technology and export behaviour: A resource-based view approach”, International Business Review, vol. 14, n. 5, pp. 539-557.
RUBERA G., KIRCA A.H. (2012), “Firm innovativeness and its performance outcomes: A meta-analytic review and theoretical integration”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 76, n. 3, pp. 130-147.
RUMRILL JR. P.D., FITZGERALD S.M. (2001), “Using narrative literature reviews to build a scientific knowledge base”, Work, vol. 16, n. 2, pp. 165-170.
SALDAÑA J. (2012), The coding manual for qualitative researchers, Sage, London.
SALMAN N., SAIVES A.L. (2005), “Indirect networks: an intangible resource for biotechnology innovation”, R&D Management, vol. 35, n. 2, pp. 203-215.
SILVER COLEY L., LINDEMANN E., WAGNER S.M. (2012), “Tangible and intangible resource inequity in customer-supplier relationships”, Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, vol. 27, n. 8, pp. 611-622.
SOETANTO D.P., JACK S.L. (2013), “Business incubators and the networks of technology-based firms”, The Journal of Technology Transfer, vol. 38, n. 4, pp. 432-453.
SRIVASTAVA R.K., SHERVANI T.A., FAHEY L. (1998), “Market-based assets and shareholder value: A framework for analysis”, Journal of Marketing, vol. 62, n. 1, pp. 2-18.
STYHRE A. (2004), “Rethinking Knowledge: A Bergsonian Critique of the Notion of Tacit Knowledge”, British Journal of Management, vol. 15, n. 2, pp. 177-188.
SURROCA J., TRIBÓ J.A., WADDOCK S. (2010), “Corporate responsibility and financial performance: The role of intangible resources”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 31, n. 5, pp. 463-490.
SWEETLAND S.R. (1996), “Human capital theory: Foundations of a field of inquiry”, Review of Educational Research, vol. 66, n. 3, pp. 341-359.
TEECE D.J., PISANO G., SHUEN A. (1997), “Dynamic Capabilities and strategic management”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 18, n. 7, pp. 509-533.
VAN WEELE M., VAN RIJNSOEVER F.J., NAUTA F. (2017), “You can’t always get what you want: How entrepreneur’s perceived resource needs affect the incubator’s assertiveness”, Technovation, vol. 59, n. January, pp. 18-33.
VICARI S. (1995), “Verso il resource-based management”, in Vicari S. (a cura di) Brand Equity. Il potenziale generativo della fiducia, Egea, Milano.
VICARI S., VERONA G. (2000), “La generazione del vantaggio competitivo. Recenti sviluppi e nuove implicazioni per il resource-based management”, Finanza, Marketing e Produzione, vol. 18, n. 2, pp. 7-38.
VILLALONGA B. (2004), “Intangible resources, Tobin’s q, and sustainability of performance differences”, Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, vol. 54, n. 2, pp. 205-230.
WERNERFELT B. (1984), “A resource‐based view of the firm”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 5, n. 2, pp. 171-180.
WINDSPERGER J. (2004), “Centralization of franchising networks: evidence from the Austrian franchise sector”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 57, n. 12, pp. 1361-1369.
YANNOPOULOS P. (2011), “Defensive and offensive strategies for market success”, International Journal of Business and Social Science, vol. 2, n. 13, pp. 1-12.
ZAKERY A., AFRAZEH A. (2017), “Analysing intellectual capital management and growth based on dynamic modelling”, Knowledge Management Research and Practice, vol. 15, n. 1, pp. 101-113.
ZAMBON S., MARZO G., SCARPINO E. (2016), “Exploring intellectual capital management in SMEs: an in-depth Italian case study”, Journal of Intellectual capital, vol. 17, n. 1, pp. 27-51.
ZYGLIDOPOULOS S.C. (2005), “The impact of downsizing on corporate reputation”, British Journal of Management, vol. 16, n. 3, pp. 253-259.