The intersection of spirituality and succession in family firms: a systematic literature review and research agenda

  • Aiza Asi
  • Michela Floris
  • Giuseppe Argiolas
Keywords: family firms; spirituality; values; succession; Systematic Literature Review

Abstract

Frame of Research. This paper presents a systematic review of existing research on the role of spirituality and values in the succession process of family businesses.

Objectives. The aim of this paper is to identify the potential interplay between spirituality and succession in family firms and uncover the main streams of research from which to build the future agenda.

Methodology. The researchers perform a systematic literature review (SLR), retrieving 115 scholarly articles published in the last 30 years from Clarivate Analytics’ Web of Science and Google Scholar databases.

Findings. The results reveal five main themes synthesizing the content of the sampled articles, indicating that the values derived from authentic spiritual adherence serve as a means of strategizing regarding succession. Finally, this study identifies a rich research agenda.

Practical implications. Mapping the literature across family firms’ spirituality and succession offers a novel perspective for family business owners and practitioners, shedding light on why family firms recognize spirituality at work or not, what firms mean by this spirituality, and how family firms make use of spirituality without instrumentalizing it.

Limitations of the research. The main drawback of this project is that the examined literature is not exhaustive because it is based on only two databases and focused exclusively on articles. Future research can consult other databases and combine them to obtain a more inclusive dataset.

Originality. This paper provides the first systematic literature review regarding spirituality in family business studies while investigating how it intersects with the problematic issue of succession.

References

ANGGADWITA G., PROFITYO W.B., ALAMANDA D.T., PERMATASARI A. (2019), “Cultural values and their implications to family business succession: A case study of small Chinese-owned family businesses in Bandung, Indonesia”, Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 10, n. 4, pp. 281-292.

ANSAH M.O., LOUW L., BELSO-MARTINEZ J. (2019), “The influence of national culture on organizational culture of multinational companies”, Cogent Social Sciences, vol. 5 n. 1, 1623648.

ARONOFF C.E., WARD J.L. (2011), Family business values: How to assure a legacy of continuity and success, Palgrave Macmillan.

ASTRACHAN J.H., ASTRACHAN C.B., CAMPOPIANO G., BAÙ M. (2020), “Values, spirituality and religion: Family business and the roots of sustainable ethical behavior”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 163, n. 4, pp. 637-645.

BALAINE L. (2019), “Gender and the preservation of family farming in Ireland”, EuroChoices, vol. 18 n. 3, pp. 33-37.

BAMMENS Y., VOORDECKERS W., VAN GILS A. (2011), “Boards of directors in family businesses: a literature review and research agenda”, International Journal of Management Reviews, vol. 13, n. 2 pp. 134-152.

BARBERA F., SHI H.X., AGARWAL A., EDWARDS M. (2019), “The family that prays together stays together: toward a process model of religious value transmission in family firms”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 163, pp. 661-673.

BEEKUN R.I., WESTERMAN J.W. (2012), “Spirituality and national culture as antecedents to ethical decision-making: a comparison between the United States and Norway”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 110, n. 1, pp. 33-44.

BENGTSON V., GIARRUSSO R., MABRY J.B., SILVERSTEIN M. (2002), “Solidarity, conflict, and ambivalence: Complementary or competing perspectives on intergenerational relationships?”, Journal of Marriage and the Family, vol. 64, n. 3, pp. 568-576.

BERTRAND M., SCHOAR A. (2006), “The role of family in family firms”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 20, n. 2, pp. 73-96.

BHATNAGAR N., SHARMA P., RAMACHANDRAN K. (2019), “Spirituality and corporate philanthropy in Indian family firms: an exploratory study”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 163, pp. 715-728.

BIKA Z., ROSA P., KARAKAS F. (2019), “Multilayered socialization processes in transgenerational family firms”, Family Business Review, vol. 32, n. 3, pp. 233-258.

BIZRI R. (2016), “Succession in the family business: drivers and pathways”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, vol. 22 n. 1, pp. 133-154.

BOZER G., LEVIN L., SANTORA J.C. (2017), “Succession in family business: multi-source perspectives”, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24, n. 4, pp.753-774.

BRAMER W.M., RETHLEFSEN M.L., KLEIJNEN J., FRANCO O.H. (2017), “Optimal database combinations for literature searches in systematic reviews: a prospective exploratory study”, Systematic Reviews, vol. 6 n. 1, pp 1-12.

BRONFENBRENNER U. (1986), “Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives”, Developmental Psychology, vol. 22, n. 6, pp. 723.

BRÜCK C., LUDWIG J., SCHWERING A. (2018), “The use of value-based management in family firms”, Journal of Management Control, vol. 28, n. 4, pp. 383-416.

CABRERA-SUAREZ K. (2005), “Leadership transfer and the successor’s development in the family firm”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 16, n. 1, pp. 71-96.

CABRERA-SUÁREZ M.K., GARCÍA-ALMEIDA D.J., DE SAÁ-PÉREZ P. (2018), “A dynamic network model of the successor’s knowledge construction from the resource-and knowledge-based view of the family firm”, Family Business Review, vol. 31, n. 2, pp. 178-197.

CALABRÒ A., VECCHIARINI M., GAST J., CAMPOPIANO G., DE MASSIS A., KRAUS S. (2019), “Innovation in family firms: A systematic literature review and guidance for future research”, International Journal of Management Reviews, vol. 21, n. 3, pp. 317-355.

CAMFIELD C., FRANCO M. (2019a), “Professionalisation of the Family Firm and Its Relationship with Personal Values”, The Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 28, n. 1, pp. 144-188.

CAMFIELD C., FRANCO M. (2019b), “Theoretical framework for family firm management: Relationship between personal values and professionalization and succession”, Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 9 n. 2, pp. 201-227.

CASE P., GOSLING J. (2010), “The spiritual organization: Critical reflections on the instrumentality of workplace spirituality”, Journal of Management, spirituality and Religion, vol. 7, n. 4, pp. 257-282.

CATER III J.J., KIDWELL R.E. (2014), “Function, governance, and trust in successor leadership groups in family firms”, Journal of Family Business Strategy, vol. 5, n. 3, pp. 217-228.

CAVANAGH G.F. (1999), “Spirituality for managers: Context and critique”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 12, n. 3, pp. 186-199.

CHRISMAN J.J., CHUA J.H., SHARMA P. (2005), “Trends and directions in the development of a strategic management theory of the family firm”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, vol. 29, n. 5, pp. 555-575.

CHRISMAN J.J., KELLERMANNS F.W., CHAN K.C., LIANO K. (2010), “Intellectual foundations of current research in family business: An identification and review of 25 influential articles”, Family Business Review, vol. 23, n. 1, pp. 9-26.

COLLINS L., AL-DAJANI H., BIKA Z., SWAIL J., SMITH R. (2014), “Assessing the contribution of the ‘theory of matriarchy’ to the entrepreneurship and family business literatures”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 6, n. 3, pp. 255-275.

CRUZ A.D., HAMILTON E., JACK S.L. (2012), “Understanding entrepreneurial cultures in family businesses: A study of family entrepreneurial teams in Honduras”, Journal of Family Business Strategy, vol. 3, n. 3, pp. 147-161.

CRUZ C.D. (2013), “Genes: a software package for analysis in experimental statistics and quantitative genetics”, Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy, vol. 35, n. 3, pp. 271-276.

DEBICKI B.J., MATHERNE III C.F., KELLERMANNS F.W., CHRISMAN J.J. (2009), “Family business research in the new millennium: An overview of the who, the where, the what, and the why”, Family Business Review, vol. 22, n. 2, pp. 151-166.

DECKOP J.R., CIRKA C.C., ANDERSSON L.M. (2003), “Doing unto others: The reciprocity of helping behavior in organizations”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 47, n. 2, pp. 101-113.

DEDE N.P., AYRANCI E. (2014), “Exploring the connections among spiritual leadership, altruism, and trust in family businesses”, Quality and Quantity, vol. 48, n. 6, pp. 3373-3400.

DEL GIUDICE M., DELLA PERUTA M.R., MAGGIONI V. (2013), “One man company or managed succession: The transfer of the family dream in southern‐Italian firms”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 26, n. 4, pp. 703-719.

DIELEMAN M., KONING J. (2019), “Articulating values through identity work: Advancing family business ethics research”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 163, n. 4, pp. 675-687.

DISCUA CRUZ A. (2014). “Christian family businesses: Opportunities for further research”, Journal of Biblical Integration in Business, vol. 16, n. 2, pp. 7-28.

DRISCOLL C., MCISAAC E.M., WIEBE E. (2019), “The material nature of spirituality in the small business workplace: from transcendent ethical values to immanent ethical actions”, Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, vol. 16, n. 2, pp. 155-177.

DUH M., BELAK J., MILFELNER B. (2010), “Core values, culture and ethical climate as constitutional elements of ethical behaviour: Exploring differences between family and non-family enterprises”, Journal of business ethics, vol. 97, n. 3, pp. 473-489.

DUNCHON D. PLOWMAN D.A., (2005), “Nurturing the spirit at work: Impact on work unit performance”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 16, n. 5, pp. 807-833.

EZE N.L., NORDQVIST M., SAMARA G., PARADA M.J. (2020), “Different Strokes for Different Folks: The Roles of Religion and Tradition for Transgenerational Entrepreneurship in Family Businesses”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 1042258720964428.

FATHALLAH J., PYAKUREL P. (2020), “Addressing gender in energy studies”, Energy Research and Social Science, vol. 65, 101461.

FERNANDO M., JACKSON B. (2006), “The influence of religion-based workplace spirituality on business leaders’ decision-making: An inter-faith study”, Journal of Management and Organization, vol. 12, n. 1, pp. 23-39.

FERRARI F. (2019), “In the mother’s shadow: exploring power dynamics in family business succession”, Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 34, n. 2, pp. 121-139.

FLORY M., IGLESIAS O., PARADA M.J., VILADÁS H. (2010), “Narratives: a powerful device for values transmission in family businesses”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 23, n. 2, pp. 166-172.

FRANKL V.E. (2000), Man’s search for meaning, Boston: Beacon. (Original work published 1959).

FRESHMAN B. (1999), “An exploratory analysis of definitions and applications of spirituality in the workplace”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 12, n. 4, pp. 318-325.

GEDAJLOVIC E., CARNEY M., CHRISMAN J.J., KELLERMANNS F.W. (2012), “The adolescence of family firm research: Taking stock and planning for the future”, Journal of Management, vol. 38, n. 4, pp. 1010-1037.

GHERARDI S., PERROTTA M. (2016), “Daughters taking over the family business”, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 8 n. 1, pp. 28-47.

GIACALONE R. A., JURKIEWICZ C.L. (Eds.) (2003), Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance, Me Sharpe.

GÓMEZ-MEJÍA L.R., HAYNES K.T., NÚÑEZ-NICKEL M., JACOBSON K.J., MOYANO-FUENTES J. (2007), “Socioemotional wealth and business risks in family-controlled firms: Evidence from Spanish olive oil mills”, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 52, n. 1, pp. 106-137.

GOMEZ-MEJIA L.R., PATEL P.C., ZELLWEGER T.M. (2018), “In the horns of the dilemma: Socioemotional wealth, financial wealth, and acquisitions in family firms”, Journal of Management, vol. 44, n. 4, pp. 1369-1397.

GOTSIS G., KORTEZI Z., (2008), “Philosophical foundations of workplace spirituality: A critical approach”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 78, n. 4, pp. 575-600.

GRUNDSTRÖM C., ÖBERG C., RÖNNBÄCK A.Ö. (2012), “Family-owned manufacturing SMEs and innovativeness: A comparison between within-family successions and external takeovers”, Journal of Family Business Strategy, vol. 3, n. 3, pp. 162-173.

GULL G.A., DOH J. (2004), “The “transmutation” of the organization: Toward a more spiritual workplace”, Journal of Management Inquiry, vol. 13, n. 2, pp. 128-139.

GUPTA S., BISHNOI N.K., MATHEWS C. (2011), “Workplace spirituality & Indian ethos”, PURUSHARTHA-A Journal of Management, Ethics and Spirituality, vol. 4, n. 2, pp. 51-63.

HALL A., MELIN L., NORDQVIST M. (2001), “Entrepreneurship as radical change in the family business: Exploring the role of cultural patterns”, Family Business Review, vol. 14, n. 3, pp. 193-208.

HARRIS J.D., FREEMAN R.E. (2008), “The impossibility of the separation thesis: A response to Joakim Sandberg”, Business Ethics Quarterly, vol. 18, n.4, pp. 541-548.

HARRIS P., OZDEMIR O. (2020), “Turkish delight a public affairs study on family business: The influence of owners in the entrepreneurship orientation of family‐owned businesses”, Journal of Public Affairs, vol. 20, n. 1, pp. e2082.

HICKS D.A. (2002), “Spiritual and religious diversity in the workplace: Implications for leadership”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 13, n. 4, pp. 379-396.

HILL P.C., JURKIEWICZ C.L., GIACALONE R.A., FRY L.W. (2013), “From concept to science: Continuing steps in workplace spirituality research”, Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, pp. 617-631.

HOFFMAN M.F. (2007), “Ora et Labora (Prayer and Work): Spirituality, communication and organizing in religious communities”, Journal of Communication and Religion, vol. 30, n. 2, pp. 187-212.

HYNIE M., LALONDE R.N., LEE N.S. (2006), “Parent-child value transmission among Chinese immigrants to North America: The case of traditional mate preferences”, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, vol. 12, n. 2, pp. 230.

ILTER B., BAYRAKTAROGLU G., IPEK I. (2017), “Impact of Islamic religiosity on materialistic values in Turkey”, Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 8, n. 4, pp. 533-557.

IZZO M.F., CIABURRI M. (2018), “Why do they do that? Motives and dimensions of family firms’ CSR engagement”, Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 14, n. 3, pp. 633-650.

JANJUHA-JIVRAJ S., SPENCE L.J. (2009), “The nature of reciprocity in family firm succession”, International Small Business Journal, vol. 27, n. 6, pp. 702-719.

JONES M.V., COVIELLO N., TANG Y.K. (2011), “International entrepreneurship research (1989–2009): a domain ontology and thematic analysis”, Journal of business venturing, vol. 26, n. 6, pp. 632-659.

JUE R.W., WEDEMEYER R.A. (2002), The inner edge: effective spirituality in your life and work, The Megraw-Hil Companies Inc.

KAMOCHE K., PINNINGTON A.H. (2012), “Managing people ‘spiritually’: a Bourdieusian critique”, Work, Employment and Society, vol. 26, n. 3, pp. 497-513.

KARAKAS F. (2008), “A holistic view of spirituality and values: the case of global Gulen networks”, Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, vol. 5, n. 1, pp. 56-83.

KAVAS M., JARZABKOWSKI P., NIGAM A. (2020), “Islamic family business: The constitutive role of religion in business”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 163, n. 4, pp. 689-700.

KELLERMANNS F.W. (2013), “Spirituality and religion in family firms”, Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, vol. 10, n. 2, pp. 112-115.

KLENKE K. (2013), “Integrating leadership and spirituality in the workplace through coalescing values and identity transformations”, International Leadership Journal, vol. 5, n. 2, pp. 53-90.

KOIRANEN M. (2002), “Over 100 years of age but still entrepreneurially active in business: Exploring the values and family characteristics of old Finnish family firms”, Family Business Review, vol. 15, n. 3, pp. 175-187.

KRISHNAKUMAR S., NECK C.P. (2002), “The “what”, “why” and “how” of spirituality in the workplace”, Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 17, n. 3, pp.153-164.

LEIß G., ZEHRER A. (2014), “Intergenerational communication in family firm succession”, Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 8, n. 1, pp. 75-90.

LOW J.J., AYOKO O.B. (2020), “The emergence of spiritual leader and leadership in religion-based organizations”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 161, n. 3, pp. 513-530.

MACIEL A.S., DE LA GARZA RAMOS M.I., AGUILAR J.L.E., REYNA J.M.S.M. (2015), “The influence of family relationships in the succession: A factorial analysis of Mexican enterprises”, Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 11, n. 4, pp. 386-401.

MADISON K., KELLERMANNS F.W. (2013), “Is the spiritual bond bound by blood? An exploratory study of spiritual leadership in family firms”, Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, vol. 10, n. 2, pp. 159-182.

MADISON K., HOLT D.T., KELLERMANNS F.W., RANFT A.L. (2016), “Viewing family firm behavior and governance through the lens of agency and stewardship theories”, Family Business Review, vol. 29, n. 1, pp. 65-93.

MARSCHKE E., PREZIOSI R., HARRINGTON W. (2009), “Professionals and executives support a relationship between organizational commitment and spirituality in the workplace”, Journal of Business and Economics Research (Jber), vol. 7, n. 8, pp. 33-48.

MATHEWS T., BLUMENTRITT T. (2015), “A sequential choice model of family business succession”, Small Business Economics, vol. 45, n. 1, pp. 15-37.

MERCHANT P., KUMAR A., MALLIK D. (2017), “The role of quality of relations in succession planning of family businesses in India”, The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, vol. 4, n. 3, pp. 45-56.

MILLER T. (1998), Technologies of truth: Cultural citizenship and the popular media, University of Minnesota Press.

MITROFF I.I., DENTON E.A. (1999), A spiritual audit of corporate America: A hard look at spirituality, religion, and values in the workplace, Jossey-Bass.

MORRIS M.H., WILLIAMS R.O., ALLEN J.A., AVILA R.A. (1997), “Correlates of success in family business transitions”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 12, n. 5, pp. 385-401.

MUSSOLINO D., CALABRÒ A. (2014), “Paternalistic leadership in family firms: Types and implications for intergenerational succession”, Journal of Family Business Strategy, vol. 5, n. 2, pp. 197-210.

NEAL J., VALLEJO M.C. (2008), “Family firms as incubators for spirituality in the workplace: Factors that nurture spiritual businesses”, Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, vol. 5, n. 2, pp. 115-159.

NELSON T., CONSTANTINIDIS C. (2017), “Sex and gender in family business succession research: A review and forward agenda from a social construction perspective”, Family Business Review, vol. 30, n. 3, pp. 219-241.

NÉMETH, K., ILYÉS C., NÉMETH S. (2017), “Intergenerational succession (generational change): Strategic renewal? The emergence of familiness in the business life of Dudits hotels”, Strategic Management, vol. 22, n. 1, pp. 30-43.

OUDAH M., JABEEN F., DIXON C. (2018), “Determinants linked to family business sustainability in the UAE: An AHP approach”, Sustainability, vol. 10, n. 1, pp 246.

PARADA M.J., VILADÁS H., (2010), “Narratives: a powerful device for values transmission in family businesses”, Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 23, n. 2, pp. 166-172.

PATERSON R. (2013), The good doctor: what patients want, Auckland University Press.

PATERSON T.A., SPECHT D., DUCHON D. (2013), “Exploring costs and consequences of religious expression in family businesses”, Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, vol. 10, n. 2, pp. 138-158.

PFEFFER J., SALANCIK G.R. (2003), The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective, Stanford University Press.

PINDADO J., REQUEJO I. (2015), “Family business performance from a governance perspective: A review of empirical research”, International Journal of Management Reviews, vol. 17, n. 3, pp. 279-311.

PRANCKUTĖ R. (2021), “Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus: The titans of bibliographic information in today’s academic world”, Publications, vol. 9, n. 1, pp. 12.

PRET T., COGAN A. (2019), “Artisan entrepreneurship: a systematic literature review and research agenda”, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, vol. 25, n. 4, pp. 592-614.

PRET T., SHAW E., DRAKOPOULOU DODD S. (2016), “Painting the full picture: The conversion of economic, cultural, social and symbolic capital”, International Small Business Journal, vol. 34, n. 8, pp. 1004-1027.

RAFAELI A. (2013), “Emotion in organizations: Considerations for family firms”, Entrepreneurship Research Journal, vol. 3, n. 3, pp. 295-300.

RAMADANI V., BEXHETI A., REXHEPI G., RATTEN V., IBRAIMI S. (2017), “Succession issues in Albanian family businesses: exploratory research” Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, vol. 19, n. 3, pp. 294-312.

REAVE L. (2005), “Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness”, The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 16, n. 5, pp. 655-687.

SAMARA G. (2020), “Family businesses in the Arab Middle East: What do we know and where should we go?”, Journal of Family Business Strategy, vol. 12, n. 3, art. N. 100359.

SCHNEIDER B.R. (2017). “Unfinished legacy: understanding reciprocity, business groups and MNCs in Latin America”, Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, vol. 10, n. 1, pp. 111-125.

SCHUTTE P.J. (2016), “Workplace spirituality: A tool or a trend?”, HTS Theological Studies, vol. 72, n. 4, pp. 1-5.

SHARMA P., CARNEY M. (2012), “Value creation and performance in private family firms: Measurement and methodological issues”, Family Business Review, vol. 25, n 3, pp. 233-242.

SHEN N. (2018), “Family business, transgenerational succession and diversification strategy”, Cross Cultural and Strategic Management, vol. 25, n. 4, pp. 628-641.

SHEN N., SU J. (2017), “Religion and succession intention-Evidence from Chinese family firms”, Journal of Corporate Finance, vol. 45, pp. 150-161.

SIMON A., MARQUÈS P., BIKFALVI A., MUÑOZ M.D. (2012), “Exploring value differences across family firms: The influence of choosing and managing complexity”, Journal of Family Business Strategy, vol. 3, n. 3, pp. 132-146.

SORENSON R.L. (2013), “How moral and social values become embedded in family firms”, Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, vol. 10, n. 2, pp. 116-137.

STEIER L. (2001), “Next-generation entrepreneurs and succession: An exploratory study of modes and means of managing social capital”, Family Business Review, vol. 14, n. 3, pp. 259-276.

TABOR W., MADISON K., MARLER L.E., KELLERMANNS F.W. (2019), “The effects of spiritual leadership in family firms: A conservation of resources perspective”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 163, pp. 729-743.

TENNANT J.P. (2018), “The state of the art in peer review”, FEMS Microbiology letters, vol. 365, n. 19, pp. fny204.

TOBAK J., NÁBRÁDI A. (2020), “The TONA model: A New methodology for assessing the development and maturity life cycles of family-owned enterprises”, Journal of Innovation and Knowledge, vol. 5, n. 4, pp. 236-243.

TREVIÑO L.K., WEAVER G.R., REYNOLDS S.J. (2006), “Behavioral ethics in organizations: A review”, Journal of Management, vol. 32, n. 6, pp. 951-990.

VASCONCELOS A.F. (2015), “The Spiritually-Based Organization: A Theoretical Review and Its Potential Role in the Third Millennium”, Cadernos EBAPE.BR, vol. 13, n. 1, pp. 183-205.

WADDOCK S., GRAVES S.B. (2006), “The impact of mergers and acquisitions on corporate stakeholder practices”, Journal of Corporate Citizenship, vol. 22, pp. 91-109.

WANG G., HACKETT R.D. (2016), “Conceptualization and measurement of virtuous leadership: Doing well by doing good”, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 137, n. 2, pp. 321-345.

WISKER Z.L., ROSINAITE V., MUNIAPAN B. (2019), “The effect of religiosity, spirituality and family power influence on family business sustainable values”, Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, vol. 15, n. 1, pp. 172-211.

WONG N.D., SMITH A., POPP A. (2018), “Religiosity, emotional states, and strategy in the family firm: Edm. Schluter & Co Ltd., 1953-1980”, Entreprises et Histoire, vol. 91, n. 2, pp. 98-125.

WRIGHT M., KELLERMANNS F.W. (2011), “Family firms: A research agenda and publication guide”, Journal of Family Business Strategy, vol. 2, n. 4, pp. 187-198.

YAO X. (1999), “Confucianism and its modern values: Confucian moral, educational and spiritual heritages revisited”, Journal of Beliefs and Values, vol. 20, n. 1, pp. 30-40.

ZACHER H., SCHMITT A., GIELNIK M. (2012), “Stepping into my shoes: generativity as a mediator of the relationship between business owners’ age and family succession”, Ageing and Society, vol. 32, n. 4, pp. 673-696.

ZELLWEGER T.M., KELLERMANNS F.W., CHRISMAN J.J., CHUA J.H. (2012), “Family control and family firm valuation by family CEOs: The importance of intentions for transgenerational control”, Organization Science, vol. 23, n. 3, pp. 851-868.

ZWACK M., KRAICZY N.D., VON SCHLIPPE A., HACK A. (2016), “Storytelling and cultural family value transmission: Value perception of stories in family firms”, Management Learning, vol. 47, n. 5, pp. 590-96.

Published
2022-08-31