Orientamento imprenditoriale e performance: un’indagine tra le università italiane (Entrepreneurial orientation and performance: a survey among Italian universities)
Purpose of the paper: The paper aims at empirically measuring the entrepreneurial orientation of the Italian universities’ departments and the impact it has on their ability to generate patents and spin-offs from research.
Methodology: We sent a web-based questionnaire to 238 Heads of department of Italian universities, getting 103 useful responses. Through a multiple regression analysis we investigated the link between departments’ entrepreneurial orientation and performance.
Findings: The entrepreneurial orientation significantly affects the ability of university departments to generate patents and spin-offs. However, not all the dimensions we used to operationalize the theoretical construct that we derived from a previous study play the same role.
Research limits: A limitation of the study is the sample size obtained and the fact that the survey was administered just in Italy. Furthermore, for the statistical analysis of results we could have used more advanced approaches.
Practical implications: The paper integrates the traditional approach in assessing the entrepreneurial ability of universities, which is limited to the focus on the results, without investigating their strategic determinants. Furthermore, it identifies the factors on which is possible to act, at the level of single departments or the whole university, in order to foster academic entrepreneurship.
Originality of the paper: The literature on entrepreneurial university has traditionally studied the organizational implications of the new model rather than the strategic implications. This paper considers the strategic orientation as a key factor to academic entrepreneurship, empirically measuring its impact.
BALDERI C., DANIELE C., PICCALUGA A. (2012), “Gli uffici di trasferimento tecnologico delle università italiane: numeri ma non solo numeri”, Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 39, n. 4, pp. 135-159.
BARNETT R. (2003), Beyond all reason: Living with ideology in the university, The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press, Buckingham.
BENCARDINO F., NAPOLITANO M.R. (2011), “L’Università nei processi di sviluppo economico e sociale”, in Bianchi A., (a cura di), Le Università del Mezzogiorno nella Storia dell’Italia Unita 1861-2011, SVIMEZ, Il Mulino, Bologna, pp. 123-134.
BERCOVITZ J., FELDMAN M. (2006), “Entrepreneurial universities and technology transfer: a conceptual framework for understanding knowledge-based economic development”, Journal of Technology Transfer, vol. 31, n. 1, pp. 175-188.
BHUIAN S.N., MENGUC B., BELL S.J. (2005), “Just entrepreneurial enough: the moderating effect of entrepreneurship on the relationship between market orientation and performance ”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 58, n. 1, pp. 9-17.
BOK D. (2003), Universities in the marketplace. The commercialization of higher education, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
CARUANA A., EWING M.T., RAMASESHAN B. (2002), “Effects of some environment challenges and centralization on the entrepreneurial orientation and performance of public sector entities”, Service Industries Journal, vol. 22, n. 2, pp. 43-58.
CESARONI F., CONTI G., PICCALUGA G., MASCARA P.C. (2005), “Technology Transfer Offices (TTO) in Italian Universities: What they do and how they do it”, Working Paper, 5, IN-SAT Laboratory, Scuola Superiore S. Anna di Pisa.
CLARK B.R. (1998), Creating Entrepreneurial Universities. Organisational pathways of transformation, Pergamon Press, New York.
CNVSU (2011), Undicesimo Rapporto sullo Stato del Sistema Universitario, Comitato Nazionale per la Valutazione del Sistema Universitario, Ministero dell’Istruzione, dell’Università e della Ricerca, Roma.
CODA V. (1988), L’orientamento strategico dell’impresa, UTET, Torino.
COMPAGNO C., PITTINO D. (2006), Ricerca scientifica e nuove imprese. Spin-off accademici e valore della conoscenza, Isedi, Novara.
COVIN J.G., SLEVIN D.P. (1986), “The development and testing of an organizational-level entrepreneurship scale”, in Ronstadt R., (a cura di), Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson College, Wellesley.
ETZKOWITZ H. (1983), “Entrepreneurial Scientists and Entrepreneurial Universities in American Academic Science”, Minerva, vol. 21, n. 2-3, pp. 198-233.
ETZKOWITZ H. (1998), “The norms of entrepreneurial science: cognitive effects of the new university-industry linkages”, Research Policy, vol. 27, n. 8, pp. 823-834.
ETZKOWITZ H. (2004), “The evolution of the entrepreneurial university”, International Journal of Technology and Globalisation, vol. 1, n. 1, pp. 64-77.
FELLER I. (1990), “Universities as engines of R&D-based economic growth: they think they can”, Research Policy, vol. 19, n. 4, pp. 335-348.
GEUNA A. (1998), “The internationalisation of the European university: A return to medieval roots”, Minerva, vol. 36, n. 3, pp. 253-270.
GIBB A.A. (2005), “Towards the Entrepreneurial University. Entrepreneurship Education as a lever for change”, NCGE Policy paper series, n. 15.
GRAS J.M.G., LAPERA D.R.G., SOLVES I.M., JOVER A.J.V., AZUAR J.S. (2008), “An empirical approach to the organisational determinants of spin-off creation in European universities”, International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, n. 4, pp. 187-198.
GURDON M.A., SAMSOM K.J. (2010), “A longitudinal study of success and failure among scientist-started ventures”, Technovation, vol. 30, n. 3, pp. 207-214.
HAYES D., WYNYARD R., (a cura di), (2002), The McDonaldization of higher education, Bergin & Garvey, Westport.
HOYE K., PRIES F. (2009), “‘Repeat commercializers,’ the ‘habitual entrepreneurs’ of university–industry technology transfer”, Technovation, vol. 29, n. 10, pp. 682-689.
HUSSLER C., PICARD F., TANG M.F. (2010), “Taking the ivory from the tower to coat the economic world: regional strategies to make science useful”, Technovation, vol. 30, n. 9/10, pp. 508-518.
JAFFE A.B., LERNER J. (2001), “Reinventing public R&D: patent policy and the commercialization of national laboratory technologies”, The RAND Journal of Economics, vol. 32, n. 1, pp. 167-198.
KLOFSTEN M., JONES-EVANS D. (2000), “Comparing Academic Entrepreneurship in Europe-The Case of Sweden and Ireland”, Small Business Economics, vol. 14, n. 4, pp. 299-310.
LERNER J. (2005), “The University and the Start-Up: Lessons from the Past Two Decades”, Journal of Technology Transfer, vol. 30, n. 1/2, pp. 49-56.
LIYANAGE S., MITCHELL H. (1994), “Strategic management of interactions at the academic-industry interface”, Technovation, vol. 14, n. 10, pp. 641-655.
LUMPKIN G.T., DESS G.G. (1996) “Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance ”, The Academy of Management Review, vol. 21, n. 1, pp. 135-172.
MACHO-STADLER I., PEREZ-CASTRILLO D., VEUGELERS R. (2008), “Designing contracts for university spin-offs”, Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, vol. 17, n. 1, pp. 185-218.
MILLER D. (1983), “The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms”, Management Science, n. 29, pp. 770-791.
MORRIS M.H., COOMBES S., SCHINDEHUTTE M., ALLEN J. (2007), “Antecedents and outcomes of entrepreneurial and market orientations in a non-profit context: theoretical and empirical insights”, Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, n. 13, pp. 12-39.
MORRIS M.H., JONES F.F. (1999), “Entrepreneurship in established organizations: the case of the public sector”, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, vol. 24, n. 1, pp. 71-91.
MUSTILLI M., CAMPANELLA F., SORRENTINO F. (2011), “La valutazione delle performance innovative dei sistemi locali di innovazione: il caso dell’aerospazio e dei nuovi materiali in Campania”, Sinergie, n. 84, pp. 209-229.
NAPOLITANO M.R., RIVIEZZO A. (2008), “The institutional education and training for entrepreneurship development in the Italian universities”, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, vol. 8, n. 6, pp. 665-685.
NETVAL (2011), Potenziamo la catena del valore. Ottavo rapporto Netval sulla valorizzazione della ricerca nelle università italiane, Network per la valorizzazione della ricerca universitaria, Milano.
NETVAL (2012), Pronti per evolvere. Nono rapporto Netval sulla valorizzazione della ricerca pubblica italiana, Network per la valorizzazione della ricerca universitaria, Milano.
NETVAL (2013), Seminiamo ricerca per raccogliere innovazione. Decimo rapporto Netval sulla valorizzazione della ricerca pubblica italiana, Network per la valorizzazione della ricerca universitaria, Milano.
O’SHEA R.P., ALLEN T.J., CHEVALIER A., ROCHE F. (2005), “Entrepreneurial orientation, technology transfer and spinoff performance of U.S. Universities”, Research Policy, vol. 34, n. 7, pp. 994-1009.
PICCALUGA A. (2001), La valorizzazione della ricerca scientifica, Franco Angeli, Milano.
PICCALUGA A., BALDERI C. (2006), “Consistenza ed evoluzione delle imprese spin-off della ricerca pubblica in Italia”, presentato al workshop Finanza & Innovazione, Milano, 25 Settembre.
POWERS J.B., McDOUGALL P.P. (2005), “University start-up formation and technology licensing with firms that go public: a resource-based view of academic entrepreneurship”, Journal of Business Venturing, n. 20, pp. 291-311.
PRODAN I., DRNOVSEK M. (2010), “Conceptualizing academic-entrepreneurial intentions: an empirical test”, Technovation, vol. 30, n. 5/6, pp. 332-347.
REBORA G. (2008), “L’orientamento strategico dell’università”, in Airoldi G., Brunetti G., Corbetta G., Invernizzi G. (a cura di), Economia Aziendale & Management: scritti in onore di Vittorio Coda, Egea, Milano.
RIVIEZZO A., NAPOLITANO M.R. (2010), “Italian universities and their third mission: a longitudinal analysis of the organization and education renewal towards the ‘entrepreneurial university’ model”, Industry & Higher Education, n. 3, pp. 227-236.
ROBERTS E.B., MALONE D.E. (1996), “Policies and structures for spinning off new companies from research and development organizations”, R&D Management, n. 26, pp. 17-48.
SCHILLACI C.E., ROMANO M., LONGO M.C. (2008), “Academic Entrepreneurship, University Incubator and Corporate Governance”, Sinergie, n. 75, pp. 89-107.
SLAUGHTER S., LESLIE L.L. (1997), Academic capitalism: Politics, policies, and the entrepreneurial university, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
TODOROVIC W.Z., MCNAUGHTON R.B., GUILD P.D. (2011), “ENTRE-U: an entrepreneurial orientation scale for universities”, Technovation, vol. 31, n. 1, pp. 128-137.
VAN BURG E., ROMME A.G.L., GILSING V.A., REYMEN I.M.M.J. (2008), “Creating university spin-offs: a science-based design perspective”, The Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 25, n. 2, pp. 114-129.
VAN GEENHUIZEN M., SOETANTO D.P. (2009), “Academic spin-offs at different ages: a case study in search of key obstacles to growth”, Technovation, vol. 29, n. 10, pp. 671-681.
VARALDO R. (2010), “Università di Stato: un modello che frena l’eccellenza”, La Stampa, 28 Luglio, p. 33.
VENKATRAMAN N. (1989),“Strategic Orientation of Business Enterprises: The Construct, Dimensionality and Measurement”, Management Science, vol. 35, n. 8, pp. 942-962.