R&D networks in high technology applied to cultural goods in Tuscany. A social network analysis
Purpose of the paper: The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship dynamics of innovation networks in the business of High Technology applied to Cultural Goods (HTCG) in Tuscany, in order to analyze the relevance of the actors’ position and their centrality in the networks. The study contributes to the wide research strand on the importance of network competences and relational capabilities for innovation.
Methodology: Social Network Analysis is applied to 42 R&D projects developed by local actors in Tuscany along fifteen years, funded at regional, national and international levels.
Findings: The results show that the business of HTCG is a complex business, where inter-organizational relationships are developed among Triple Helix actors in public-private partnerships and industry-university relationships.
Research limits: The research adopts a quantitative approach to the study of relationship dynamics in innovation networks and uses the Social Network Analysis. In this context, the analysis of temporary R&D projects is restricted to the results concerning the dynamics of temporary networks and exclusively for formal collaborations. In addition, the research would benefit from some in-depth interviews in order to investigate how and why actors develop relationships and with whom.
Practical implications: It is therefore necessary to underline the importance for managers of relational competences for innovation and the relevance of resources and competences also outside the firm’s boundaries, in particular in a complex business like HTCG.
Originality of the paper: The work is a preliminary, but original study on HTCG and it depicts several figures on network dynamics in this newly emerging business.
AHUJA G., POLIDORO J.R., MITCHELL W. (2009), “Structural homophily or social asymmetry? The formation of alliances by poorly embedded firms”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 30, n. 9, pp. 941-958.
AMIT R., SCHOEMAKER P. (1993), “Strategic assets & organizational rent”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 14, n. 1, pp. 33-46.
ANTOLDI F., CERRATO D., DEPPERU D. (2011), “Strategic Networks, Trust and the competitive advantage of SMEs”, in Antoldi F., Cerrato D., Depperu D., Export Consortia in Developing Countries, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 23-43.
BELLANDI M., CALOFFI A. (2010), “An analysis of regional policies promoting networks for innovation”, European Planning Studies, vol. 18, n. 1, pp. 67-82.
BELUSSI F., STABER U.H. (2011), Managing Networks of Creativity, Routledge, Abingdon.
BELL G.G. (2005), “Clusters, networks, and firm innovativeness”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 26, n. 3, pp. 287-295.
BIFULCO F. (2009), “Open innovation in cultural heritage exploitation: focus on a thematic network value-creating”, Sinergie, n. 80, pp. 157-167.
BOARI C., GRANDI A., LORENZONI G. (1989), “Le organizzazioni a rete: tre concetti di base”, Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 64, pp. 283-310
BURT R.S. (1992), Structural holes: the social structure of competition, Harvard University Press, Massachusetts, Stati Uniti.
CALOGHIROU Y., VONORTAS N., IOANNIDES S. (2004), European collaboration in research and development: business strategy and public policy, Edgal Elwar, Cheltenham.
CAPALDO A. (2007), “Network structure and innovation: The leveraging of a dual network as a distinctive relational capability”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 28, n. 6, pp. 585-608.
CAPALDO A. (2015), Strategia, reti di imprese e capacità relazionali, Cedam, Padova.
CAPONE F., (2014), “Technological cluster and innovation trajectories in Shipbuilding industry. Some evidences from VI and VII EU Framework Programmes”, Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs, vol. 6, n. 2, pp. 89-105.
CASANUEVA C., CASTRO I., GALÁN J.L. (2013), “Informational networks and innovation in mature industrial clusters”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 66, n. 5, pp. 603-613.
CASPRINI E., PUCCI T., ZANNI L. (2014), “Business model shifts: a case study on firms that apply high technology to cultural goods”, Technology analysis and strategic management, vol. 26, n. 2, pp. 171-187.
CENTRICA (2013), A New Experience with art! Uffizi Touch, http://www.centrica.it/products/uffizi-touch/[accessed February 13th 2013].
CHAPUIS M. (eds) (2009), Preserving our heritage, Improving our environment. 20 years of EU research into cultural heritage, Directorate-General for Research, European Commission, Luxemburg.
CHESBROUGH H. (2003), Open Innovation, the new imperative for creating and profiting from technology, Harvard Business School Press, Boston.
COOKE P. (2012), “Transversality and Transition: Green Innovation and New Regional Path Creation”, European Planning Studies, vol. 20, n. 5, pp. 817-834.
DAGNINO G.B., LEVANTI G., MOCCIARO LI DESTRI A. (2008), “Evolutionary Dynamics of Inter-firm Networks: A Complex Systems Perspective”, Advances in Strategic Management, vol. 25, n. 1, pp. 67-129.
DAGNINO G.B., LEVANTI G., MINA’ A., PICONE P.A. (2015), “Interorganizational network and innovation: a bibliometric study and proposed research agenda”, Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, vol. 30, n. 3/4, 354 - 377.
DAGNINO G.B., D’ALLURA G.M., FARACI R., PISANO V., (2011), “La localizzazione dei processi innovativi ad alto contenuto tecnologico: il ruolo delle imprese ‘àncora’ fra sistemi locali e network globali”, Sinergie, n. 84, pp. 179-207.
DE LAURENTIS C. (2006), “Digital knowledge exploitation: ICT, memory institutions and innovation from cultural assets”, Journal of Technology Transfer, vol. 31, n. 1, pp. 77-89.
DI PIETRO GUGLIELMETTI R.L., RENZI M.F. (2014), “Cultural technology district: a model for local and regional development”, Current Issues in Tourism, vol. 17, n. 7, pp. 640-656.
DYER J.H., SINGH H. (1998), “The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage”, The Academy of Management Review, vol. 23, n. 4, pp. 660-679.
ETZKOWITZ H., LEYDESDORFF L. (2000), “The Dynamics of Innovation: From National Systems and ‘Mode 2’ to a Triple Helix of University-Industry-Government Relations”, Research Policy, vol. 29, n. 2, pp. 109-123.
FOSS N.J. (2010), “Micro-foundations for management research: What, why, and whither?”, Cuadernos de Economía y Dirección de la Empresa, vol. 13, n. 42, pp. 11-34.
FONTI F., WHITBRED R.C. (2011), “Where do weak ties come from? An empirical investigation of the antecedents of weak network ties”, Sinergie, n. 86, pp. 93-111.
GIULIANI E. (2013), “Network dynamics in regional clusters: Evidence from Chile”, Research Policy, vol. 42, n. 8, pp. 1406-1419.
GOODMAN L.A. (1961), “Snowball sampling”, Annals of Mathematical Statistics, vol. 32, n. 1, pp. 148-170.
GRANOVETTER M. (1973), “The strength of weak ties”, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 78, n. 6, pp. 1360-1380.
GULATI R. (1999), “Network location and learning: The influence of network resources and firm capabilities on alliance formation”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 20, n. 5, pp. 397-420.
GULATI R., NOHRIA N., ZAHEER A. (2000), “Strategic networks”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, n. 3, pp. 203-215.
HAGEDOORN J., LINK A.N., VONORTAS N.S. (2000), “Research Partnerships” Research Policy, vol. 29, n. 4, pp. 567-586.
HAGEDOORN J., ROIJAKKERS N., VAN KRANENBURG H. (2006), “Inter-Firm R&D Networks: the Importance of Strategic Network Capabilities for High-Tech Partnership Formation”, British Journal of Management, vol. 17, n. 1, pp. 39- 53.
HÅKANSSON H., SNEHOTA I. (1989), “No Business is an Island: The Network Concept of Business Strategy”, Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 4, n. 3, pp. 187-200.
HÅKANSSON H., SNEHOTA I. (Eds.) (1995), Developing Relationships in Business Networks, Routledge, London.
HERVAS-OLIVER J.L., ALBORS-GARRIGOS J., (2009), “The role of the firm’s internal and relational capabilities in clusters: when distance and embeddedness are not enough to explain innovation”, Journal Economic Geography, vol. 9, n. 2, pp. 263-283.
INKPEN A.C., TSANG E.W.K. (2005), “Social capital, networks and knowledge transfer”, The Academy of Management Review, vol. 30, n. 1, pp. 146-165.
IRPET (2012), Il settore dell’Alta Tecnologia applicata ai beni culturali in Toscana, IRPET, Firenze.
KOGUT B. (2000), “The Network as knowledge: generative rules and the emergence of structure”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 21, n. 3, pp. 405-425.
JARILLO J.C. (1988), “On strategic networks”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 9, n. 1, pp. 31-41.
LAZZERETTI L. (2012), Cluster creativi per i beni culturali. L’esperienza Toscana delle tecnologie per la conservazione e la valorizzazione, Florence University Press, Firenze.
LAZZERETTI L., CAPONE F. (2015), “Innovations and Innovators in a Resilient City. The case of Chemical innovations after the 1966 Flood in Florence”, City, Culture and Society, vol. 6, n. 1, Online April 2015.
LAZZERETTI L., CAPONE F., CINTI T. (2011), “Open innovation in city of art: The case of laser in conservation of artworks in Florence”, City, Culture and Society, vol. 2, n. 3, pp. 159-68.
LAZZERETTI L., CAPONE F. (2009), “Creative Industries in Italy”, Quaderni di Sinergie, n. 15, pp. 145-159.
LORENZONI G. (2010), “Genesis of a research field: district, network, strategic network”, Journal of Management and Governance, vol. 14, n. 3, pp. 221-239.
LORENZONI G., LIPPARINI A. (1999), “The leveraging of interfirm relationships as a distinctive organizational capability: A longitudinal study”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 20, n. 4, pp. 317-338.
LORENZONI G., ORNATI O. (1988), “Constellations of firms and new ventures”, Journal of Business Venturing, vol. 3, n. 1, pp. 41-57.
MATT M., ROBIN S., WOLFF S. (2012), “The inﬂuence of public programs on inter-ﬁrm R&D collaboration strategies: project-level evidence from FP5 and FP6”, Journal of Technology Transfer, vol. 37, n. 6, pp. 885-916.
MCPHERSON M., SMITH-LOVIN L., COOK J.M. (2001), “Birds of a Feather Homophily in Social Networks”, Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 27, n. 1, pp. 415-44.
PORTER M.E. (1998), On Competition, Harvard Business School Press, Harvard, US.
POWELL W.W., GRODAL S. (2005), “Networks of Innovators”, The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, pp. 56-85.
POWELL W. (1990), “Neither market nor hierarchy: network forms of organization”, Research in Organizational Behavior, vol. 12, pp. 295-336.
POWELL W.W., WHITE D.R., KOPUT K.W., OWEN-SMITH J. (2005), “Network dynamics and field evolution: the growth of the interorganizational collaboration in the life sciences”, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 110, n. 4, pp. 1132-1205.
PROTOGEROU A., CALOGHIROU Y., SIOKAS E. (2013), “Twenty-ﬁve years of science-industry collaboration: the emergence and evolution of policy-driven research networks across Europe”, Journal of Technology Transfer, vol. 38, n. 6, pp. 873-895.
PYKA A. (2002), “Innovation networks in economics: from the incentive-based to the knowledge based approaches”, European Journal for Innovation Management, vol. 5, n. 3, pp. 152-163.
REGIONE TOSCANA (2011), “Delibera n. 539 del 27/06/2011, Promozione e progettazione dei Distretti Tecnologici, POR CREO FESR 2007-2013”, PRSE 2007-2010, Tuscany Region.
RITTER T., GEMUNDEN H.G. (2003), “Network competence: Its impact on innovation success and its antecedents”, Journal of Business Research, vol. 56, n. 9, pp. 745-755.
SALIMBENI R., PINI R., SIANO S. (2002), “Thirty years of laser applications in conservation”, in Guenther A. H. (Ed.), International trends in applied optics, Bellingham, SPIE Press, pp. 667-677.
SALIMBERNI R. (2012), “The Technology District for Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Cities in Tuscany”, Salone dell’Arte e del Restauro di Firenze, 8th November 2012, Florence.
SAMMARA A., MUZZI C., DANDI R., BIGGIERO L. (2006), “Imprese, istituzioni e processi innovativi. Un’analisi relazione delle collaborazione per l’innovazione nel cluster aerospaziale del Lazio”, in Mercurio R. (2006) Organizzazione, regolazione e competitività, McGraw Hill, Milano, pp. 200-219.
SCIARELLI M., TANI M. (2014), “La Social Network Analysis per lo studio dell’innovazione nelle reti di imprese”, Quaderni di Sinergie, n. 17, pp. 87-104.
SCOTT J. (2012), Social Network Analysis, Sage Publications, London.
SEDITA S.R. (2008), “Interpersonal and interorganizational networks in the performing arts: the case of project-based organizations, in the live music industry”, Industry and Innovation, vol. 15, n. 5, pp. 493-511.
SILVESTRELLI S. (2014), “Innovazioni gestionali e nuove relazioni sistemiche per la competitività dell’impresa”, Sinergie, n. 94, pp. 3-26.
STABER U. (2009), “An ecological-evolutionary prespective on the micro-foundations of cultural products network”, Sinergie, n. 79, pp. 11-28.
THORELLI H.B. (1986), “Between markets and hierarchies”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 7, n. 1, pp. 37-51.
TSAI W., GHOSHAL S. (1998), “Social Capital and Value Creation: The Role of Intrafirm Networks”, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 41, n. 4, pp. 464-476.
VAN DER VALK T., GIJSBERS G. (2010), “The Use of Social Network Analysis in Innovation Studies: Mapping Actors and Technologies”, Innovation: Management, Policy and Practice, vol. 12, n. 1, pp. 5-17.
VON HIPPEL E. (2005), Democratizing Innovation, MIT Press, Cambridge.
WASSERMAN S., FAUST K. (1994), Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications, Cambridge University Press, New York.
ZAHEER A., BELL G.G. (2005), “Benefiting from network position: Firm capabilities, structural holes, and performance”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 26, n. 9, pp. 809-825.
ZAHEER A., VENKATRAMAN N. (1995), “Relational governance as an interorganizational strategy, An empirical test on the role of trust in economic exchange”, Strategic Management Journal, vol. 16, n. 5, pp. 373-392.
ZAHEER A., MCEVILY B., PERRONE V. (1998), “Does trust matter? Exploring the effects of interorganizational and interpersonal trust on performance”, Organization Science, vol. 9, n. 2, pp. 141-159.